The present invention relates generally to carbon structures and specifically to electrohydrodynamically formed structures of carbonaceous material. Coatings, such as physically coherent films, coatings, membranes, or tapes made from high carbon content materials, such as graphene sheets, can be assembled using electrophoretic deposition, tape casting, spin casting, drop casting, or filtration. Cast or filtered structures typically have to be at least 400 nm thick to provide continuity and mechanical stability. Such structures contain flaws created by removing the liquid through drying or filtration. In addition, such structures can have a reduced flexibility and compliance, which can result in an increase in susceptibility to damage during transfer and/or fitting to the item to be covered. Similar to electrohydrodynamic deposition, electrophoretic deposition uses an applied electric field to attract particles or sheets to a surface having an overall charge opposite to the charge intrinsic to or induced on the particles or sheets, thereby coating the surface, as described in United States patent No. 2,894,888 to Shyne, et al., and United States patent No. 3,932,231 to Hara, et al., and many others. However, in electrophoretic deposition the particles or sheets adhere at the point of initial contact to the substrate or previously deposited layers and remain fixed in position, which leaves defects or gaps between the particles or sheets comprising the layers that constitute the coating, membrane, or film. A fully dense covering requires several layers, resulting in increased thickness of the coating, membrane, or film which limits its applications.
March 22, 2016