How disseminated tumour cells engage specific stromal components in distant organs for survival and outgrowth is a critical but poorly understood step of the metastatic cascade. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in promoting the cancer stem cell properties needed for metastasis initiation, whereas the reverse process of mesenchymal-epithelial transition is required for metastatic outgrowth. Here we report that this paradoxical requirement for the simultaneous induction of both mesenchymal-epithelial transition and cancer stem cell traits in disseminated tumour cells is provided by bone vascular niche E-selectin, whose direct binding to cancer cells promotes bone metastasis by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition and activating Wnt signalling. E-selectin binding activity mediated by the α1-3 fucosyltransferases Fut3/Fut6 and Glg1 are instrumental to the formation of bone metastasis. These findings provide unique insights into the functional role of E-selectin as a component of the vascular niche critical for metastatic colonization in bone.
Protein complexes perform key roles in nearly all aspects of biology. Identification of the composition of these complexes offers insights into how different cellular processes are carried out. The use of affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for identifying protein-protein interactions, but has been most frequently applied to cell model systems using tagged and overexpressed bait proteins. Although valuable, this approach can create several potential artifacts due to the presence of a tag on a protein and the higher abundance of the protein of interest (bait). The isolation of endogenous proteins using antibodies raised against the proteins of interest instead of an epitope tag offers a means to examine protein interactions in any cellular or animal model system and without the caveats of overexpressed, tagged proteins. Although conceptually simple, the limited use of this approach has been primarily driven by challenges associated with finding adequate antibodies and experimental conditions for effective isolations. In this chapter, we present a protocol for the optimization of lysis conditions, antibody evaluation, affinity purification, and ultimately identification of protein complexes from endogenous immunoaffinity purifications using quantitative mass spectrometry. We also highlight the increased use of targeted mass spectrometry analyses, such as parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) for orthogonal validation of protein isolation and interactions initially identified via data-dependent mass spectrometry analyses.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder, driven by the expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat within the huntingtin (Htt) gene and culminating in neuronal degeneration in the brain, predominantly in the striatum and cortex. The histone deacetylase 4 (Hdac4) was found to contribute to the disease progression, providing a potential therapeutic target. Hdac4 knockdown reduced accumulation of misfolded Htt protein and improved HD phenotypes. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, given its independence on deacetylase activity and the predominant cytoplasmic Hdac4 localization in the brain. Here, we undertook a multiomics approach to uncover the function of Hdac4 in the context of HD pathogenesis. We characterized the interactome of endogenous Hdac4 in brains of HD mouse models. Alterations in interactions were investigated in response to Htt polyQ length, comparing mice with normal (Q20) and disease (Q140) Htt, at both pre- and post-symptomatic ages (2 and 10 months, respectively). Parallel analyses for Hdac5, a related class IIa Hdac, highlighted the unique interaction network established by Hdac4. To validate and distinguish interactions specifically enhanced in an HD-vulnerable brain region, we next characterized endogenous Hdac4 interactions in dissected striata from this HD mouse series. Hdac4 associations were polyQ-dependent in the striatum, but not in the whole brain, particularly in symptomatic mice. Hdac5 interactions did not exhibit polyQ dependence. To identify which Hdac4 interactions and functions could participate in HD pathogenesis, we integrated our interactome with proteome and transcriptome datasets generated from the striata. We discovered an overlap in enriched functional classes with the Hdac4 interactome, particularly in vesicular trafficking and synaptic functions, and we further validated the Hdac4 interaction with the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homolog (WASH) complex. This study expands the knowledge of Hdac4 regulation and functions in HD, adding to the understanding of the molecular underpinning of HD phenotypes.
As cellular metabolic hubs, mitochondria are the main energy producers for the cell. These organelles host essential energy producing biochemical processes, including the TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. An accumulating body of literature has demonstrated that a majority of mitochondrial proteins are decorated with diverse posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Given the critical roles of these proteins in cellular metabolic pathways and response to environmental stress or pathogens, understanding the role of PTMs in regulating their functions has become an area of intense investigation. A major family of enzymes that regulate PTMs within the mitochondria are sirtuins (SIRTs). Albeit until recently the least understood sirtuin, SIRT4 has emerged as an enzyme capable of removing diverse PTMs from its substrates, thereby modulating their functions. SIRT4 was shown to have ADP-ribosyltransferase, deacetylase, lipoamidase, and deacylase enzymatic activities. As metabolic dysfunction is linked to human disease, SIRT4 levels and activities have been implicated in modulating susceptibility to hyperinsulinemia and diabetes, liver disease, cancer, neurodegeneration, heart disease, aging, and pathogenic infections. Therefore, SIRT4 has emerged as a possible candidate for targeted therapeutics. Here, we discuss the diverse enzymatic activities and substrates of SIRT4 and its roles in human health and disease.
Mechanical forces are essential drivers of numerous biological processes, notably during development. Although it is well recognized that cells sense and adapt to mechanical forces, the signal transduction pathways that underlie mechanosensing have remained elusive. Here, we investigate the impact of mechanical centrifugation force on phosphorylation-mediated signaling in Xenopus embryos. By monitoring temporal phosphoproteome and proteome alterations in response to force, we discover and validate elevated phosphorylation on focal adhesion and tight junction components, leading to several mechanistic insights into mechanosensing and tissue restoration. First, we determine changes in kinase activity profiles during mechanoresponse, identifying the activation of basophilic kinases. Pathway interrogation using kinase inhibitor treatment uncovers a crosstalk between the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase C (PKC) in mechanoresponse. Second, we find LIM domain 7 protein (Lmo7) as upregulated upon centrifugation, contributing to mechanoresponse. Third, we discover that mechanical compression force induces a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET)-like phenotype.
N-lysine acetylation is an abundant and dynamic regulatory posttranslational modification that remains poorly characterized in bacteria. In bacteria, hundreds of proteins are known to be acetylated, but the biological significance of the majority of these events remains unclear. Previously, we characterized the acetylome and found that the essential histone-like protein HBsu contains seven previously unknown acetylation sites in vivo. Here, we investigate whether acetylation is a regulatory component of the function of HBsu in nucleoid compaction. Using mutations that mimic the acetylated and unacetylated forms of the protein, we show that the inability to acetylate key HBsu lysine residues results in a more compacted nucleoid. We further investigated the mechanism of HBsu acetylation. We screened deletions of the ∼50 putative GNAT domain-encoding genes in for their effects on DNA compaction, and identified five candidates that may encode acetyltransferases acting on HBsu. Genetic bypass experiments demonstrated that two of these, YfmK and YdgE, can acetylate Hbsu, and their potential sites of action on HBsu were identified. Additionally, purified YfmK was able to directly acetylate HBsu in vitro, suggesting that it is the second identified protein acetyltransferase in We propose that at least one physiological function of the acetylation of HBsu at key lysine residues is to regulate nucleoid compaction, analogous to the role of histone acetylation in eukaryotes.
Protein movement between different subcellular compartments is an essential aspect of biological processes, including transcriptional and metabolic regulation, and immune and stress responses. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses are master manipulators of cellular composition and organization. Accumulating evidences have highlighted the importance of infection-induced protein translocations between organelles. Both directional and temporal, these translocation events facilitate localization-dependent protein interactions and changes in protein functions that contribute to either host defense or virus replication. The discovery and characterization of protein movement is technically challenging, given the necessity for sensitive detection and subcellular resolution. Here, we discuss infection-induced translocations of host and viral proteins, and the value of integrating quantitative proteomics with advanced microscopy for understanding the biology of human virus infections.
Viral DNA sensing is an essential component of the mammalian innate immune response. Upon binding viral DNA, the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) catalyzes the production of cyclic dinucleotides to induce type I interferons. However, little is known about how cGAS is homeostatically maintained or regulated upon infection. Here, we define cytoplasmic cGAS interactions with cellular and viral proteins upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in primary human fibroblasts. We compare several HSV-1 strains (wild-type, d109, d106) that induce cytokine responses and apoptosis and place cGAS interactions in the context of temporal proteome alterations using isobaric-labeling mass spectrometry. Follow-up analyses establish a functional interaction between cGAS and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase-like protein OASL. The OAS-like domain interacts with the cGAS Mab21 domain, while the OASL ubiquitin-like domain further inhibits cGAS-mediated interferon response. Our findings explain how cGAS may be inactively maintained in cellular homeostasis, with OASL functioning as a negative feedback loop for cytokine induction.
Emerging evidence highlights protein acetylation, a prevalent lysine posttranslational modification, as a regulatory mechanism and promising therapeutic target in human viral infections. However, how infections dynamically alter global cellular acetylation or whether viral proteins are acetylated remains virtually unexplored. Here, we establish acetylation as a highly-regulated molecular toggle of protein function integral to the herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. We offer temporal resolution of cellular and viral acetylations. By interrogating dynamic protein acetylation with both protein abundance and subcellular localization, we discover finely tuned spatial acetylations across infection time. We determine that lamin acetylation at the nuclear periphery protects against virus production by inhibiting capsid nuclear egress. Further studies within infectious viral particles identify numerous acetylations, including on the viral transcriptional activator pUL26, which we show represses virus production. Altogether, this study provides specific insights into functions of cellular and viral protein acetylations and a valuable resource of dynamic acetylation events.
Alterations in global mRNA decay broadly impact multiple stages of gene expression, although signals that connect these processes are incompletely defined. Here, we used tandem mass tag labeling coupled with mass spectrometry to reveal that changing the mRNA decay landscape, as frequently occurs during viral infection, results in subcellular redistribution of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in human cells. Accelerating Xrn1-dependent mRNA decay through expression of a gammaherpesviral endonuclease drove nuclear translocation of many RBPs, including poly(A) tail-associated proteins. Conversely, cells lacking Xrn1 exhibited changes in the localization or abundance of numerous factors linked to mRNA turnover. Using these data, we uncovered a new role for relocalized cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein in repressing recruitment of TATA binding protein and RNA polymerase II to promoters. Collectively, our results show that changes in cytoplasmic mRNA decay can directly impact protein localization, providing a mechanism to connect seemingly distal stages of gene expression.
Viral proteins have evolved to target cellular organelles and usurp their functions for virus replication. Despite the knowledge of these critical functions for several organelles, little is known about peroxisomes during infection. Peroxisomes are primarily metabolic organelles with important functions in lipid metabolism. Here, we discovered that the enveloped viruses human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induce the biogenesis of and unique morphological changes to peroxisomes to support their replication. Targeted proteomic quantification revealed a global virus-induced upregulation of peroxisomal proteins. Mathematical modeling and microscopy structural analysis show that infection triggers peroxisome growth and fission, leading to increased peroxisome numbers and irregular disc-like structures. HCMV-induced peroxisome biogenesis increased the phospholipid plasmalogen, thereby enhancing virus production. Peroxisome regulation and dependence were not observed for the non-enveloped adenovirus. Our findings uncover a role of peroxisomes in viral pathogenesis, with likely implications for multiple enveloped viruses.
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCM) holds great potential for heart regeneration and disease modeling and may lead to future therapeutic applications. Currently, application of this technology is limited by our lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive direct iCM reprogramming. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach, we identified the temporal global changes in protein abundance that occur during initial phases of iCM reprogramming. Collectively, our results show systematic and temporally distinct alterations in levels of specific functional classes of proteins during the initiating steps of reprogramming including extracellular matrix proteins, translation factors, and chromatin-binding proteins. We have constructed protein relational networks associated with the initial transition of a fibroblast into an iCM. These findings demonstrate the presence of an orchestrated series of temporal steps associated with dynamic changes in protein abundance in a defined group of protein pathways during the initiating events of direct reprogramming.
Lipoylation is a rare, but highly conserved lysine posttranslational modification. To date, it is known to occur on only four multimeric metabolic enzymes in mammals, yet these proteins are staples in the core metabolic landscape. The dysregulation of these mitochondrial proteins is linked to a range of human metabolic disorders. Perhaps most striking is that lipoylation itself, the proteins that add or remove the modification, as well as the proteins it decorates are all evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans, highlighting the importance of this essential cofactor. Here, we discuss the biological significance of protein lipoylation, the importance of understanding its regulation in health and disease states, and the advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies that can aid these studies.
ABSTARCT: Glaucoma is a chronic disease that shares many similarities with other neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system. This study was designed to evaluate the association between glaucoma and other neurodegenerative disorders by investigating glaucoma-associated protein changes in the retina and vitreous humour. The multiplexed Tandem Mass Tag based proteomics (TMT-MS3) was carried out on retinal tissue and vitreous humour fluid collected from glaucoma patients and age-matched controls followed by functional pathway and protein network interaction analysis. About 5000 proteins were quantified from retinal tissue and vitreous fluid of glaucoma and control eyes. Of the differentially regulated proteins, 122 were found linked with pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pathway analyses of differentially regulated proteins indicate defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery. The classical complement pathway associated proteins were activated in the glaucoma samples suggesting an innate inflammatory response. The majority of common differentially regulated proteins in both tissues were members of functional protein networks associated brain changes in AD and other chronic degenerative conditions. Identification of previously reported and novel pathways in glaucoma that overlap with other CNS neurodegenerative disorders promises to provide renewed understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of age related neurodegenerative diseases.
Viral replication in eukaryotes is a process inherently organized in both space and time. Viral components target subcellular organelles to access host machineries required for replication and spread. Diverse viruses are known to alter organelle shape, composition, function, and dynamics as part of their replication cycles. Here, we highlight recent advances in microscopy and proteomic methods that have helped and will continue to help define mechanisms used by viruses to exploit host proteome organization.
By the age of 40, one in five adults without symptoms of cardiovascular disease are at risk for developing congestive heart failure. Within this population, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains one of the leading causes of disease and death, with nearly half of cases genetically determined. Though genetic and high throughput sequencing-based approaches have identified sporadic and inherited mutations in a multitude of genes implicated in cardiomyopathy, how combinations of asymptomatic mutations lead to cardiac failure remains a mystery. Since a number of studies have implicated mutations of the transcription factor TBX20 in congenital heart diseases, we investigated the underlying mechanisms, using an unbiased systems-based screen to identify novel, cardiac-specific binding partners. We demonstrated that TBX20 physically and genetically interacts with the essential transcription factor CASZ1. This interaction is required for survival, as mice heterozygous for both Tbx20 and Casz1 die post-natally as a result of DCM. A Tbx20 mutation associated with human familial DCM sterically interferes with the TBX20-CASZ1 interaction and provides a physical basis for how this human mutation disrupts normal cardiac function. Finally, we employed quantitative proteomic analyses to define the molecular pathways mis-regulated upon disruption of this novel complex. Collectively, our proteomic, biochemical, genetic, and structural studies suggest that the physical interaction between TBX20 and CASZ1 is required for cardiac homeostasis, and further, that reduction or loss of this critical interaction leads to DCM. This work provides strong evidence that DCM can be inherited through a digenic mechanism.
The interferon-inducible protein X (IFIX), a member of the PYHIN family, was recently recognized as an antiviral factor against infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). IFIX binds viral DNA upon infection and promotes expression of antiviral cytokines. How IFIX exerts its host defense functions and whether it is inhibited by the virus remain unknown. Here, we integrated live cell microscopy, proteomics, IFIX domain characterization, and molecular virology to investigate IFIX regulation and antiviral functions during HSV-1 infection. We find that IFIX has a dynamic localization during infection that changes from diffuse nuclear and nucleoli distribution in uninfected cells to discrete nuclear puncta early in infection. This is rapidly followed by a reduction in IFIX protein levels. Indeed, using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, we define IFIX interactions during HSV-1 infection, finding an association with a proteasome subunit and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome processes. Using synchronized HSV-1 infection, microscopy, and proteasome-inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that IFIX co-localizes with nuclear proteasome puncta shortly after 3 h of infection and that its pyrin domain is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to several other host defense factors, IFIX degradation is not dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the viral protein ICP0. However, we show IFIX degradation requires immediate-early viral gene expression, suggesting a viral host suppression mechanism. The IFIX interactome also demonstrated its association with transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the 5FMC complex. We validate this interaction using microscopy and reciprocal isolations and determine it is mediated by the IFIX HIN domain. Finally, we show IFIX suppresses immediate-early and early viral gene expression during infection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that IFIX antiviral functions work in part via viral transcriptional suppression and that HSV-1 has acquired mechanisms to block its functions via proteasome-dependent degradation.