Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Attaining a mechanistic understanding of human heart development and homeostasis and the molecular basis of associated disease states relies on the use of animal models. Here, we present the cardiac proteomes of 4 model vertebrates with dual circulatory systems: the pig (Sus scrofa), the mouse (Mus musculus), and 2 frogs (Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis). Determination of which proteins and protein pathways are conserved and which have diverged within these species will aid in our ability to choose the appropriate models for determining protein function and to model human disease. We uncover mammalian- and amphibian-specific, as well as species-specific, enriched proteins and protein pathways. Among these, we find and validate an enrichment in cell-cycle-associated proteins within Xenopus laevis. To further investigate functional units within cardiac proteomes, we develop a computational approach to profile the abundance of protein complexes across species. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of these data sets for predicting appropriate model systems for studying given cardiac conditions by testing the role of Kielin/chordin-like protein (Kcp), a protein found as enriched in frog hearts compared to mammals. We establish that germ-line mutations in Kcp in Xenopus lead to valve defects and, ultimately, cardiac failure and death. Thus, integrating these findings with data on proteins responsible for cardiac disease should lead to the development of refined, species-specific models for protein function and disease states.
Understanding multicellular organism development from a molecular perspective is no small feat, yet this level of comprehension affords clinician-scientists the ability to identify root causes and mechanisms of congenital diseases. Inarguably, the maturation of molecular biology tools has significantly contributed to the identification of genetic loci that underlie normal and aberrant developmental programs. In combination with cell biology approaches, these tools have begun to elucidate the spatiotemporal expression and function of developmentally-regulated proteins. The emergence of quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) for biological applications has accelerated the pace at which these proteins can be functionally characterized, driving the construction of an increasingly detailed systems biology picture of developmental processes. Here, we review the quantitative MS-based proteomic technologies that have contributed significantly to understanding the role of proteome regulation in developmental processes. We provide a brief overview of these methodologies, focusing on their ability to provide precise and accurate proteome measurements. We then highlight the use of discovery-based and targeted mass spectrometry approaches in model systems to study cellular differentiation states, tissue phenotypes, and spatiotemporal subcellular organization. We also discuss the current application and future perspectives of MS proteomics to study PTM coordination and the role of protein complexes during development.
Lysine acetylation is a prevalent posttranslational modification that acts as a regulator of protein function, subcellular localization, and interactions. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of temporal alterations in protein acetylation during infection with a range of human viruses. It has become clear that both cellular and viral proteins are decorated by lysine acetylations, and that these modifications contribute to core host defense and virus replication processes. Further defining the extent and dynamics of protein acetylation events during the progression of an infection can provide an important new perspective on the intricate mechanisms underlying the biology and pathogenesis of virus infections. Here, we provide protocols for identifying, quantifying, and probing the regulation of lysine acetylations during viral infection. We describe the use of acetyl-lysine immunoaffinity purification and quantitative mass spectrometry for assessing the cellular acetylome at different stages of an infection. As an alternative to traditional antibody-mediated western blotting, we discuss the benefits of targeted mass spectrometry approaches for detecting and quantifying site-specific acetylations on proteins of interest. Specifically, we provide a protocol using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). We further discuss experimental considerations that are specific to studying viral infections. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the types of assays that can be employed to characterize the function of an acetylation event in the context of infection. As a method to interrogate the regulation of acetylation, we describe the Fluor de Lys assay for monitoring the enzymatic activities of deacetylases.
DNA sensors are a core component of innate immunity in mammalian cells. In response to pathogen infection, these specialized proteins sense pathogenic DNA from bacteria or viruses and initiate immune signaling cascades. These defense mechanisms rely on the rapid formation and temporal regulation of protein-protein interactions. Similarly, protein interactions underlie virus immune evasion mechanisms, as proteins from diverse viruses associate with and inhibit DNA sensors. Here, we describe experimental protocols for identifying protein interactions of DNA sensors, and discuss considerations for optimal isolation of protein complexes when targeting either endogenous or tagged proteins. Additionally, as viral infections and immune responses are known to induce prominent changes in cellular protein abundances, we provide a workflow for investigating these protein associations in the context of proteome alterations.
The formation of multimerized protein assemblies has emerged as a core component of immune signal amplification, yet the biochemical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear for many mammalian proteins within host defense pathways. The interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is a viral DNA sensor that oligomerizes upon binding to nuclear viral DNA and induces downstream antiviral responses. Here, we identify the pyrin domain (PYD) residues that mediate IFI16 oligomerization in a charge-dependent manner. Based on structure modeling, these residues are predicted to be surface exposed within distinct α-helices. By generating oligomerization-deficient mutants, we demonstrate that IFI16 homotypic clustering is necessary for its assembly onto parental viral genomes at the nuclear periphery upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Preventing oligomerization severely hampered the capacity of IFI16 to induce antiviral cytokine expression, suppress viral protein levels, and restrict viral progeny production. Restoring oligomerization via residue-specific charge mimics partially rescued IFI16 antiviral roles. We show that pyrin domains from PYHIN proteins are functionally interchangeable, facilitating cooperative assembly with the IFI16 HINs, highlighting an inherent role for pyrin domains in antiviral response. Using immunoaffinity purification and targeted mass spectrometry, we establish that oligomerization promotes IFI16 interactions with proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, including PAF1C, UBTF, and ND10 bodies. We further discover PAF1C as an HSV-1 restriction factor. Altogether, our study uncovers intrinsic properties that govern IFI16 oligomerization, which serves as a signal amplification platform to activate innate immune responses and to recruit transcriptional regulatory proteins that suppress HSV-1 replication. The ability of mammalian cells to detect the genomes of nuclear-replicating viruses via cellular DNA sensors is fundamental to innate immunity. Recently, mounting evidence is supporting the universal role of polymerization in these host defense factors as a signal amplification strategy. Yet, what has remained unclear are the intrinsic properties that govern their immune signal transmission. Here, we uncover the biochemical basis for oligomerization of the nuclear DNA sensor, IFI16. Upon infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) in human fibroblasts, we characterize the contribution of IFI16 oligomerization to downstream protein interactions and antiviral functions, including cytokine induction and suppression of HSV-1 replication. Until now, the global characterization of oligomerization-dependent protein interactions for an immune receptor has never been explored. Our integrative quantitative proteomics, molecular CRISPR/Cas9-based assays, mutational analyses, and confocal microscopy shed light on the dynamics of immune signaling cascades activated against pathogens.
Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles with roles in cellular metabolism, cytotoxicity, and signaling. The plastic nature of these organelles allows them to respond to diverse biological processes, such as virus infections, by remodeling their biogenesis, morphology, and composition to enhance specific functions. During virus infections in humans, peroxisomes act as important immune signaling organelles, aiding the host by orchestrating antiviral signaling. However, more recently it was discovered that peroxisomes can also benefit the virus, facilitating virus-host interactions that rewire peroxisomes to support cellular processes for virus replication and spread. Here, we describe recent studies that uncovered this double-edged character of peroxisomes during infection, highlighting mechanisms that viruses have coevolved to take advantage of peroxisome plasticity. We also provide a perspective for future studies by comparing the established roles of peroxisomes in plant infections and discussing the promise of virology studies as a venue to reveal the uncharted biology of peroxisomes.
Infections with human herpesviruses are ubiquitous and a public health concern worldwide. Current treatments reduce the severity of some symptoms associated to herpetic infections but neither remove the viral reservoir from the infected host nor protect from the recurrent symptom outbreaks that characterise herpetic infections. The difficulty in therapeutically tackling these viral systems stems in part from their remarkably large proteomes and the complex networks of physical and functional associations that they tailor. This study presents our efforts to unravel the complexity of the interactome of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), the prototypical herpesvirus species. Inspired by our previous work, we present an improved and more integrative computational pipeline for the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network reconstruction in HSV1, together with a newly developed consensus clustering framework, which allowed us to extend the analysis beyond binary physical interactions and revealed a system-level layout of higher-order functional associations in the virion proteome. Additionally, the analysis provided new functional annotation for the currently undercharacterised protein pUS10. In-depth bioinformatics sequence analysis unravelled structural features in pUS10 reminiscent of those observed in some capsid-associated proteins in tailed bacteriophages, with which herpesviruses are believed to share a common ancestry. Using immunoaffinity purification (IP)-mass spectrometry (MS), we obtained additional support for our bioinformatically predicted interaction between pUS10 and the inner tegument protein pUL37, which binds cytosolic capsids, contributing to initial tegumentation and eventually virion maturation. In summary, this study unveils new, to our knowledge, insights at both the system and molecular levels that can help us better understand the complexity behind herpesvirus infections.
How disseminated tumour cells engage specific stromal components in distant organs for survival and outgrowth is a critical but poorly understood step of the metastatic cascade. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in promoting the cancer stem cell properties needed for metastasis initiation, whereas the reverse process of mesenchymal-epithelial transition is required for metastatic outgrowth. Here we report that this paradoxical requirement for the simultaneous induction of both mesenchymal-epithelial transition and cancer stem cell traits in disseminated tumour cells is provided by bone vascular niche E-selectin, whose direct binding to cancer cells promotes bone metastasis by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition and activating Wnt signalling. E-selectin binding activity mediated by the α1-3 fucosyltransferases Fut3/Fut6 and Glg1 are instrumental to the formation of bone metastasis. These findings provide unique insights into the functional role of E-selectin as a component of the vascular niche critical for metastatic colonization in bone.
Protein complexes perform key roles in nearly all aspects of biology. Identification of the composition of these complexes offers insights into how different cellular processes are carried out. The use of affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for identifying protein-protein interactions, but has been most frequently applied to cell model systems using tagged and overexpressed bait proteins. Although valuable, this approach can create several potential artifacts due to the presence of a tag on a protein and the higher abundance of the protein of interest (bait). The isolation of endogenous proteins using antibodies raised against the proteins of interest instead of an epitope tag offers a means to examine protein interactions in any cellular or animal model system and without the caveats of overexpressed, tagged proteins. Although conceptually simple, the limited use of this approach has been primarily driven by challenges associated with finding adequate antibodies and experimental conditions for effective isolations. In this chapter, we present a protocol for the optimization of lysis conditions, antibody evaluation, affinity purification, and ultimately identification of protein complexes from endogenous immunoaffinity purifications using quantitative mass spectrometry. We also highlight the increased use of targeted mass spectrometry analyses, such as parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) for orthogonal validation of protein isolation and interactions initially identified via data-dependent mass spectrometry analyses.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder, driven by the expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat within the huntingtin (Htt) gene and culminating in neuronal degeneration in the brain, predominantly in the striatum and cortex. Histone deacetylase 4 (Hdac4) was previously found to contribute to the disease progression, providing a potential therapeutic target. Hdac4 knockdown reduced accumulation of misfolded Htt protein and improved HD phenotypes. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, given its independence on deacetylase activity and the predominant cytoplasmic Hdac4 localization in the brain. Here, we undertook a multiomics approach to uncover the function of Hdac4 in the context of HD pathogenesis. We characterized the interactome of endogenous Hdac4 in brains of HD mouse models. Alterations in interactions were investigated in response to Htt polyQ length, comparing mice with normal (Q20) and disease (Q140) Htt, at both pre- and post-symptomatic ages (2 and 10 months, respectively). Parallel analyses for Hdac5, a related class IIa Hdac, highlighted the unique interaction network established by Hdac4. To validate and distinguish interactions specifically enhanced in an HD-vulnerable brain region, we next characterized endogenous Hdac4 interactions in dissected striata from this HD mouse series. Hdac4 associations were polyQ-dependent in the striatum, but not in the whole brain, particularly in symptomatic mice. Hdac5 interactions did not exhibit polyQ dependence. To identify which Hdac4 interactions and functions could participate in HD pathogenesis, we integrated our interactome with proteome and transcriptome data sets generated from the striata. We discovered an overlap in enriched functional classes with the Hdac4 interactome, particularly in vesicular trafficking and synaptic functions, and we further validated the Hdac4 interaction with the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homolog (WASH) complex. This study expands the knowledge of Hdac4 regulation and functions in HD, adding to the understanding of the molecular underpinning of HD phenotypes.
As cellular metabolic hubs, mitochondria are the main energy producers for the cell. These organelles host essential energy producing biochemical processes, including the TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. An accumulating body of literature has demonstrated that a majority of mitochondrial proteins are decorated with diverse posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Given the critical roles of these proteins in cellular metabolic pathways and response to environmental stress or pathogens, understanding the role of PTMs in regulating their functions has become an area of intense investigation. A major family of enzymes that regulate PTMs within the mitochondria are sirtuins (SIRTs). Albeit until recently the least understood sirtuin, SIRT4 has emerged as an enzyme capable of removing diverse PTMs from its substrates, thereby modulating their functions. SIRT4 was shown to have ADP-ribosyltransferase, deacetylase, lipoamidase, and deacylase enzymatic activities. As metabolic dysfunction is linked to human disease, SIRT4 levels and activities have been implicated in modulating susceptibility to hyperinsulinemia and diabetes, liver disease, cancer, neurodegeneration, heart disease, aging, and pathogenic infections. Therefore, SIRT4 has emerged as a possible candidate for targeted therapeutics. Here, we discuss the diverse enzymatic activities and substrates of SIRT4 and its roles in human health and disease.
Mechanical forces are essential drivers of numerous biological processes, notably during development. Although it is well recognized that cells sense and adapt to mechanical forces, the signal transduction pathways that underlie mechanosensing have remained elusive. Here, we investigate the impact of mechanical centrifugation force on phosphorylation-mediated signaling in Xenopus embryos. By monitoring temporal phosphoproteome and proteome alterations in response to force, we discover and validate elevated phosphorylation on focal adhesion and tight junction components, leading to several mechanistic insights into mechanosensing and tissue restoration. First, we determine changes in kinase activity profiles during mechanoresponse, identifying the activation of basophilic kinases. Pathway interrogation using kinase inhibitor treatment uncovers a crosstalk between the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase C (PKC) in mechanoresponse. Second, we find LIM domain 7 protein (Lmo7) as upregulated upon centrifugation, contributing to mechanoresponse. Third, we discover that mechanical compression force induces a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET)-like phenotype.
N-lysine acetylation is an abundant and dynamic regulatory posttranslational modification that remains poorly characterized in bacteria. In bacteria, hundreds of proteins are known to be acetylated, but the biological significance of the majority of these events remains unclear. Previously, we characterized the acetylome and found that the essential histone-like protein HBsu contains seven previously unknown acetylation sites in vivo. Here, we investigate whether acetylation is a regulatory component of the function of HBsu in nucleoid compaction. Using mutations that mimic the acetylated and unacetylated forms of the protein, we show that the inability to acetylate key HBsu lysine residues results in a more compacted nucleoid. We further investigated the mechanism of HBsu acetylation. We screened deletions of the ∼50 putative GNAT domain-encoding genes in for their effects on DNA compaction, and identified five candidates that may encode acetyltransferases acting on HBsu. Genetic bypass experiments demonstrated that two of these, YfmK and YdgE, can acetylate Hbsu, and their potential sites of action on HBsu were identified. Additionally, purified YfmK was able to directly acetylate HBsu in vitro, suggesting that it is the second identified protein acetyltransferase in We propose that at least one physiological function of the acetylation of HBsu at key lysine residues is to regulate nucleoid compaction, analogous to the role of histone acetylation in eukaryotes.
Protein movement between different subcellular compartments is an essential aspect of biological processes, including transcriptional and metabolic regulation, and immune and stress responses. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses are master manipulators of cellular composition and organization. Accumulating evidences have highlighted the importance of infection-induced protein translocations between organelles. Both directional and temporal, these translocation events facilitate localization-dependent protein interactions and changes in protein functions that contribute to either host defense or virus replication. The discovery and characterization of protein movement is technically challenging, given the necessity for sensitive detection and subcellular resolution. Here, we discuss infection-induced translocations of host and viral proteins, and the value of integrating quantitative proteomics with advanced microscopy for understanding the biology of human virus infections.
We have investigated a distinct disorder with progressive corneal neovascularization, keloid formation, chronic skin ulcers, wasting of subcutaneous tissue, flexion contractures of the fingers, and acro-osteolysis. In six affected individuals from four families, we found one of two recurrent variants in discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2): c.1829T>C (p.Leu610Pro) or c.2219A>G (p.Tyr740Cys). DDR2 encodes a collagen-responsive receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates connective-tissue formation. In three of the families, affected individuals comprise singleton adult individuals, and parental samples were not available for verification of the de novo occurrence of the DDR2 variants. In the fourth family, a mother and two of her children were affected, and the c.2219A>G missense variant was proven to be de novo in the mother. Phosphorylation of DDR2 was increased in fibroblasts from affected individuals, suggesting reduced receptor autoinhibition and ligand-independent kinase activation. Evidence for activation of other growth-regulatory signaling pathways was not found. Finally, we found that the protein kinase inhibitor dasatinib prevented DDR2 autophosphorylation in fibroblasts, suggesting an approach to treatment. We propose this progressive, fibrotic condition should be designated as Warburg-Cinotti syndrome.
Viral DNA sensing is an essential component of the mammalian innate immune response. Upon binding viral DNA, the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) catalyzes the production of cyclic dinucleotides to induce type I interferons. However, little is known about how cGAS is homeostatically maintained or regulated upon infection. Here, we define cytoplasmic cGAS interactions with cellular and viral proteins upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in primary human fibroblasts. We compare several HSV-1 strains (wild-type, d109, d106) that induce cytokine responses and apoptosis and place cGAS interactions in the context of temporal proteome alterations using isobaric-labeling mass spectrometry. Follow-up analyses establish a functional interaction between cGAS and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase-like protein OASL. The OAS-like domain interacts with the cGAS Mab21 domain, while the OASL ubiquitin-like domain further inhibits cGAS-mediated interferon response. Our findings explain how cGAS may be inactively maintained in cellular homeostasis, with OASL functioning as a negative feedback loop for cytokine induction.
Emerging evidence highlights protein acetylation, a prevalent lysine posttranslational modification, as a regulatory mechanism and promising therapeutic target in human viral infections. However, how infections dynamically alter global cellular acetylation or whether viral proteins are acetylated remains virtually unexplored. Here, we establish acetylation as a highly-regulated molecular toggle of protein function integral to the herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. We offer temporal resolution of cellular and viral acetylations. By interrogating dynamic protein acetylation with both protein abundance and subcellular localization, we discover finely tuned spatial acetylations across infection time. We determine that lamin acetylation at the nuclear periphery protects against virus production by inhibiting capsid nuclear egress. Further studies within infectious viral particles identify numerous acetylations, including on the viral transcriptional activator pUL26, which we show represses virus production. Altogether, this study provides specific insights into functions of cellular and viral protein acetylations and a valuable resource of dynamic acetylation events.
Alterations in global mRNA decay broadly impact multiple stages of gene expression, although signals that connect these processes are incompletely defined. Here, we used tandem mass tag labeling coupled with mass spectrometry to reveal that changing the mRNA decay landscape, as frequently occurs during viral infection, results in subcellular redistribution of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in human cells. Accelerating Xrn1-dependent mRNA decay through expression of a gammaherpesviral endonuclease drove nuclear translocation of many RBPs, including poly(A) tail-associated proteins. Conversely, cells lacking Xrn1 exhibited changes in the localization or abundance of numerous factors linked to mRNA turnover. Using these data, we uncovered a new role for relocalized cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein in repressing recruitment of TATA binding protein and RNA polymerase II to promoters. Collectively, our results show that changes in cytoplasmic mRNA decay can directly impact protein localization, providing a mechanism to connect seemingly distal stages of gene expression.