The integration of proteomic methods to virology has facilitated a significant breadth of biological insight into mechanisms of virus replication, antiviral host responses and viral subversion of host defenses. Throughout the course of infection, these cellular mechanisms rely heavily on the formation of temporally and spatially regulated virus-host protein-protein interactions. Reviewed here are proteomic-based approaches that have been used to characterize this dynamic virus-host interplay. Specifically discussed are the contribution of integrative mass spectrometry, antibody-based affinity purification of protein complexes, cross-linking and protein array techniques for elucidating complex networks of virus-host protein associations during infection with a diverse range of RNA and DNA viruses. The benefits and limitations of applying proteomic methods to virology are explored, and the contribution of these approaches to important biological discoveries and to inspiring new tractable avenues for the design of antiviral therapeutics is highlighted.