We describe a theory for a new type of colloid behavior whereby particles deposited on a surface by electrophoresis are manipulated to form two-dimensional crystals. Since the particles are equally charged, the clustering is opposite that expected from electrostatic considerations. Such behavior is consistent with migration due to electrohydrodynamic flows associated with polarization layers and ion currents. Provided colloid stability is maintained, the assembly processes take place with both dc and ac fields and may be modulated by adjusting the field strength or frequency. No migration is present at frequencies above 1 MHz. Two-dimensional fluid and crystalline states can be formed on the electrode surface. Experiments with patterned electrodes demonstrate the presence of the electrohydrodynamic now. A mathematical model of the electrohydrodynamics provides insight into the assembly process.