Processing of YBCO single crystals was carried out by solidification of semi-liquid YBCO composition using a seeding technique. Microstructural characterization of the pinning centers was investigated by TEM. Characterization of single crystals was carried out, relating grain size and shape to the corresponding flux profiles. Current densities were calculated based on measured trapped fields. Once circulating currents were established, flux pumping and quenching experiments were conducted. These large single crystals will be incorporated into electromagnetic forming devices for use in the military and commercial aircraft manufacturing and service industries.
A detailed small-angle neutron scattering study of the vortex lattice in a single crystal of YBa2Cu3O7 was made for a field of 0.5 tesla inclined at angles between 0 and 80 degrees to the crystalline c axis. The vortex lattice is triangular for all angles, and for angles less than or equal to 70 degrees its orientation adjusts itself to maximize the pinning energy to densely and highly regularly spaced twin planes. These observations have important implications for the microscopic flux-pinning mechanism, and hence for the critical current achievable in YBaCu3O7. For large angles (about 80 degrees) the vortex lattice consists of independent chains in the orientation predicted by anisotropic London theory.