Cybergenetic systems use computer interfaces to enable feed-back controls over biological processes in real time. The complex and dynamic nature of cellular metabolism makes cybergenetics attractive for controlling engineered metabolic pathways in microbial fermentations. Cybergenetics would not only create new avenues of research into cellular metabolism, it would also enable unprecedented strategies for pathway optimization and bioreactor operation and automation. Implementation of metabolic cybergenetics, however, will require new capabilities from actuators, biosensors, and control algorithms. The recent application of optogenetics in metabolic engineering, the expanding role of genetically encoded biosensors in strain development, and continued progress in control algorithms for biological processes suggest that this technology will become available in the not so distant future.
Monobodies are synthetic non-immunoglobulin customizable protein binders invaluable to basic and applied research, and of considerable potential as future therapeutics and diagnostic tools. The ability to reversibly control their binding activity to their targets on demand would significantly expand their applications in biotechnology, medicine, and research. Here we present, as proof-of-principle, the development of a light-controlled monobody (OptoMB) that works in vitro and in cells and whose affinity for its SH2-domain target exhibits a 330-fold shift in binding affinity upon illumination. We demonstrate that our αSH2-OptoMB can be used to purify SH2-tagged proteins directly from crude E. coli extract, achieving 99.8% purity and over 40% yield in a single purification step. By virtue of their ability to be designed to bind any protein of interest, OptoMBs have the potential to find new powerful applications as light-switchable binders of untagged proteins with the temporal and spatial precision afforded by light.
Since the neurobiological inception of optogenetics, light‐controlled molecular perturbations have been applied in many scientific disciplines to both manipulate and observe cellular function. Proteins exhibiting light‐sensitive conformational changes provide researchers with avenues for spatiotemporal control over the cellular environment and serve as valuable alternatives to chemically inducible systems. Optogenetic approaches have been developed to target proteins to specific subcellular compartments, allowing for the manipulation of nuclear translocation and plasma membrane morphology. Additionally, these tools have been harnessed for molecular interrogation of organelle function, location, and dynamics. Optogenetic approaches offer novel ways to answer fundamental biological questions and to improve the efficiency of bioengineered cell factories by controlling the assembly of synthetic organelles. This review first provides a summary of available optogenetic systems with an emphasis on their organelle‐specific utility. It then explores the strategies employed for organelle targeting and concludes by discussing our perspective on the future of optogenetics to control subcellular structure and organization.
Yeast has been engineered to convert simple sugars and amino acids into drugs that inhibit a neurotransmitter molecule. The work marks a step towards making the production of these drugs more reliable and sustainable.
The mitochondria, often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell, offer a unique physicochemical environment enriched with a distinct set of enzymes, metabolites and cofactors ready to be exploited for metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss how the mitochondrion has been engineered in the traditional sense of metabolic engineering or completely bypassed for chemical production. We then describe the more recent approach of harnessing the mitochondria to compartmentalize engineered metabolic pathways, including for the production of alcohols, terpenoids, sterols, organic acids and other valuable products. We explain the different mechanisms by which mitochondrial compartmentalization benefits engineered metabolic pathways to boost chemical production. Finally, we discuss the key challenges that need to be overcome to expand the applicability of mitochondrial engineering and reach the full potential of this emerging field.
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism can be harnessed to produce many valuable chemicals. Among these, isobutanol, which is derived from valine degradation, has received substantial attention due to its promise as an advanced biofuel. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred organism for isobutanol production, the lack of isobutanol biosensors in this organism has limited the ability to screen strains at high throughput. Here, we use a transcriptional regulator of BCAA biosynthesis, Leu3p, to develop the first genetically encoded biosensor for isobutanol production in yeast. Small modifications allowed us to redeploy Leu3p in a second biosensor for isopentanol, another BCAA-derived product of interest. Each biosensor is highly specific to isobutanol or isopentanol, respectively, and was used to engineer metabolic enzymes to increase titers. The isobutanol biosensor was additionally employed to isolate high-producing strains, and guide the construction and enhancement of mitochondrial and cytosolic isobutanol biosynthetic pathways, including in combination with optogenetic actuators to enhance metabolic flux. These biosensors promise to accelerate the development of enzymes and strains for branched-chain higher alcohol production, and offer a blueprint to develop biosensors for other products derived from BCAA metabolism.
A growing number of optogenetic tools have been developed to reversibly control binding between two engineered protein domains. In contrast, relatively few tools confer light-switchable binding to a generic target protein of interest. Such a capability would offer substantial advantages, enabling photoswitchable binding to endogenous target proteins in cells or light-based protein purification in vitro. Here, we report the development of opto-nanobodies (OptoNBs), a versatile class of chimeric photoswitchable proteins whose binding to proteins of interest can be enhanced or inhibited upon blue light illumination. We find that OptoNBs are suitable for a range of applications including reversibly binding to endogenous intracellular targets, modulating signaling pathway activity, and controlling binding to purified protein targets in vitro. This work represents a step towards programmable photoswitchable regulation of a wide variety of target proteins.
Control of the lac operon with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) has been used to regulate gene expression in Escherichia coli for countless applications, including metabolic engineering and recombinant protein production. However, optogenetics offers unique capabilities, such as easy tunability, reversibility, dynamic induction strength and spatial control, that are difficult to obtain with chemical inducers. We have developed a series of circuits for optogenetic regulation of the lac operon, which we call OptoLAC, to control gene expression from various IPTG-inducible promoters using only blue light. Applying them to metabolic engineering improves mevalonate and isobutanol production by 24% and 27% respectively, compared to IPTG induction, in light-controlled fermentations scalable to at least two-litre bioreactors. Furthermore, OptoLAC circuits enable control of recombinant protein production, reaching yields comparable to IPTG induction but with easier tunability of expression. OptoLAC circuits are potentially useful to confer light control over other cell functions originally designed to be IPTG-inducible.
Abstract Bioconversion of xylose—the second most abundant sugar in nature—into high-value fuels and chemicals by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a long-term goal of the metabolic engineering community. Although most efforts have heavily focused on the production of ethanol by engineered S. cerevisiae, yields and productivities of ethanol produced from xylose have remained inferior as compared with ethanol produced from glucose. However, this entrenched focus on ethanol has concealed the fact that many aspects of xylose metabolism favor the production of nonethanol products. Through reduced overall metabolic flux, a more respiratory nature of consumption, and evading glucose signaling pathways, the bioconversion of xylose can be more amenable to redirecting flux away from ethanol towards the desired target product. In this report, we show that coupling xylose consumption via the oxidoreductive pathway with a mitochondrially-targeted isobutanol biosynthesis pathway leads to enhanced product yields and titers as compared to cultures utilizing glucose or galactose as a carbon source. Through the optimization of culture conditions, we achieve 2.6 g/L of isobutanol in the fed-batch flask and bioreactor fermentations. These results suggest that there may be synergistic benefits of coupling xylose assimilation with the production of nonethanol value-added products.
To maximize a desired product, metabolic engineers typically express enzymes to high, constant levels. Yet, permanent pathway activation can have undesirable consequences including competition with essential pathways and accumulation of toxic intermediates. Faced with similar challenges, natural metabolic systems compartmentalize enzymes into organelles or post-translationally induce activity under certain conditions. Here we report that optogenetic control can be used to extend compartmentalization and dynamic control to engineered metabolisms in yeast. We describe a suite of optogenetic tools to trigger assembly and disassembly of metabolically active enzyme clusters. Using the deoxyviolacein biosynthesis pathway as a model system, we find that light-switchable clustering can enhance product formation six-fold and product specificity 18-fold by decreasing the concentration of intermediate metabolites and reducing flux through competing pathways. Inducible compartmentalization of enzymes into synthetic organelles can thus be used to control engineered metabolic pathways, limit intermediates and favor the formation of desired products.
Metabolic engineering aims to maximize production of valuable compounds using cells as biological catalysts. When incorporating engineered pathways into host organisms, an inherent conflict is presented between maintenance of cellular health and generation of products. This challenge has been addressed through two main modalities of dynamic control: decoupling growth from production via two-phase fermentations and autoregulation of pathways to optimize product formation. However, dynamic control can offer even greater potential for metabolic engineering through open-loop and closed-loop control modalities of the production phase. Here we review recent applications of dynamic control strategies in metabolic engineering. We then explore the potential of integrating biosensors and computer-assisted feedback control as a promising future modality of dynamic control.
The optimization of engineered metabolic pathways requires careful control over the levels and timing of metabolic enzyme expression1,2,3,4. Optogenetic tools are ideal for achieving such precise control, as light can be applied and removed instantly without complex media changes. Here we show that light-controlled transcription can be used to enhance the biosynthesis of valuable products in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We introduce new optogenetic circuits to shift cells from a light-induced growth phase to a darkness-induced production phase, which allows us to control fermentation with only light. Furthermore, optogenetic control of engineered pathways enables a new mode of bioreactor operation using periodic light pulses to tune enzyme expression during the production phase of fermentation to increase yields. Using these advances, we control the mitochondrial isobutanol pathway to produce up to 8.49 ± 0.31 g l−1 of isobutanol and 2.38 ± 0.06 g l−1 of 2-methyl-1-butanol micro-aerobically from glucose. These results make a compelling case for the application of optogenetics to metabolic engineering for the production of valuable products.
Abstract Isobutanol and other branched-chain higher alcohols (BCHAs) are promising advanced biofuels derived from the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly attractive host for the production of \BCHAs\ due to its high tolerance to alcohols and prevalent use in the bioethanol industry. Degradation of \BCAAs\ begins with transamination reactions, catalyzed by branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) located in the mitochondria (Bat1p) and cytosol (Bat2p). However, the roles that these transaminases play in isobutanol production remain poorly understood and obscured by conflicting reports in the literature. In this work, we elucidate the influence of \BCATs\ on isobutanol production in two genetic backgrounds (CEN.PK2-1C and BY4741). In the process, we uncover and characterize two competing isobutanol pathways, which can be manipulated by overexpressing or deleting \BAT1\ or BAT2, and adding or removing valine from the fermentation media. We show that deletion of \BAT1\ alone increases isobutanol production by 14.2-fold over wild type strains in media lacking valine, and examine how interactions between valine and the regulatory protein Ilv6p affect isobutanol production. Compartmentalizing the five-gene isobutanol biosynthetic pathway in mitochondria of \BAT1\ deletion strains results in an additional 2.1-fold increase in isobutanol production in the absence of valine. While valine inhibits isobutanol production, it boosts 2-methyl-1-butanol production. This work clarifies the role of transamination activity in \BCHA\ biosynthesis, and develops valuable strategies and strains for future optimization of isobutanol production.
Each subcellular compartment in yeast offers a unique physiochemical environment and metabolite, enzyme, and cofactor composition. While yeast metabolic engineering has focused on assembling pathways in the cell cytosol, there is growing interest in embracing subcellular compartmentalization. Beyond harnessing distinct organelle properties, physical separation of organelles from the cytosol has the potential to eliminate metabolic crosstalk and enhance compartmentalized pathway efficiency. In this Perspective we review the state of the art in yeast subcellular engineering, highlighting the benefits of targeting biosynthetic pathways to subcellular compartments, including mitochondria, peroxisomes, the ER and/or Golgi, vacuoles, and the cell wall, in different yeast species. We compare the performances of strains developed with subcellular engineering to those of native producers or yeast strains previously engineered with cytosolic pathways. We also identify important challenges that lie ahead, which need to be addressed for organelle engineering to become as mainstream as cytosolic engineering in academia and industry.
Summary Biological solutions hold unique advantages to address challenges in sustainable energy. Living organisms have evolved for billions of years to solve problems in catalysis, material synthesis, carbon fixation, and energy capture and storage, including not only photosynthesis but also older metabolisms that rely on metal oxidation and reduction. These capabilities offer solutions to problems in sustainable energy, including the safe use of nuclear power, the construction and recycling of batteries, the extraction and processing of rare earth elements, and the carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels. Biological self-repair, self-assembly, and self-replication offer the ability to deploy these capabilities on a global scale, and evolution can be harnessed to accelerate engineering. In this review, we discuss the opportunities for applied biology to contribute to the sustainable energy landscape, the challenges faced, and cutting-edge bioengineering that draws inspiration from fundamental research into biophysics, metabolism, catalysis, and systems biology.
Mitochondrial metabolism links energy production to other essential cellular processes such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source, mitochondria are responsible for the synthesis of a myriad of important metabolites and cofactors such as tetrahydrofolate, α-ketoacids, steroids, aminolevulinic acid, biotin, lipoic acid, acetyl-CoA, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, and ubiquinone. Furthermore, mitochondria and their metabolism have been implicated in aging and several human diseases, including inherited mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, there is great interest in understanding mitochondrial metabolism and the complex relationship it has with other cellular processes. A large number of studies on mitochondrial metabolism have been conducted in the last 50 years, taking a broad range of approaches. In this review, we summarize and discuss the most commonly used tools that have been used to study different aspects of the metabolism of mitochondria: ranging from dyes that monitor changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and pharmacological tools to study respiration or ATP synthesis, to more modern tools such as genetically encoded biosensors and trans-omic approaches enabled by recent advances in mass spectrometry, computation, and other technologies. These tools have allowed the large number of studies that have shaped our current understanding of mitochondrial metabolism. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1373. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1373For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
A novel approach recruits the largest prokaryotic family of ligand-induced transcriptional regulators to develop a new class of biosensors in yeast based on transcriptional activation, vastly expanding the repertoire of biosensors that could function in eukaryotic hosts.
Efforts to improve the production of a compound of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly involved engineering or overexpression of cytoplasmic enzymes. We show that targeting metabolic pathways to mitochondria can increase production compared with overexpression of the enzymes involved in the same pathways in the cytoplasm. Compartmentalization of the Ehrlich pathway into mitochondria increased isobutanol production by 260%, whereas overexpression of the same pathway in the cytoplasm only improved yields by 10%, compared with a strain overproducing enzymes involved in only the first three steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular fractionation of engineered strains revealed that targeting the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway to the mitochondria achieves greater local enzyme concentrations. Other benefits of compartmentalization may include increased availability of intermediates, removing the need to transport intermediates out of the mitochondrion and reducing the loss of intermediates to competing pathways.
Inward-rectifier potassium (K+) channels conduct K+ ions most efficiently in one direction, into the cell. Kir2 channels control the resting membrane voltage in many electrically excitable cells, and heritable mutations cause periodic paralysis and cardiac arrhythmia. We present the crystal structure of Kir2.2 from chicken, which, excluding the unstructured amino and carboxyl termini, is 90% identical to human Kir2.2. Crystals containing rubidium (Rb+), strontium (Sr2+), and europium (Eu3+) reveal binding sites along the ion conduction pathway that are both conductive and inhibitory. The sites correlate with extensive electrophysiological data and provide a structural basis for understanding rectification. The channel's extracellular surface, with large structured turrets and an unusual selectivity filter entryway, might explain the relative insensitivity of eukaryotic inward rectifiers to toxins. These same surface features also suggest a possible approach to the development of inhibitory agents specific to each member of the inward-rectifier K+ channel family.
Sirtuin proteins comprise a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Although several structures of sirtuins have been determined, the mechanism by which NAD(+) cleavage occurs has remained unclear. We report the structures of ternary complexes containing NAD(+) and acetylated peptide bound to the bacterial sirtuin Sir2Tm and to a catalytic mutant (Sir2TM(H116Y)). NAD(+) in these structures binds in a conformation different from that seen in previous structures, exposing the alpha face of the nicotinamide ribose to the carbonyl oxygen of the acetyl lysine substrate. The NAD+ conformation is identical in both structures, suggesting that proper coenzyme orientation is not dependent on contacts with the catalytic histidine. We also present the structure of Sir2TM(H116A) bound to deacteylated peptide and 3'-O-acetyl ADP ribose. Taken together, these structures suggest a mechanism for nicotinamide cleavage in which an invariant phenylalanine plays a central role in promoting formation of the O-alkylamidate reaction intermediate and preventing nicotinamide exchange.
Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes that catalyze the deacetylation of acetyllysine side chains in a reaction that consumes NAD+. Although several crystal structures of sirtuins bound to non-native acetyl peptides have been determined, relatively little about how sirtuins discriminate among different substrates is understood. We have carried out a systematic structural and thermodynamic analysis of several peptides bound to a single sirtuin, the Sir2 homologue from Thermatoga maritima (Sir2Tm). We report structures of five different forms of Sir2Tm: two forms bound to the p53 C-terminal tail in the acetylated and unacetylated states, two forms bound to putative acetyl peptide substrates derived from the structured domains of histones H3 and H4, and one form bound to polypropylene glycol (PPG), which resembles the apoenzyme. The structures reveal previously unobserved complementary side chain interactions between Sir2Tm and the first residue N-terminal to the acetyllysine (position-1) and the second residue C-terminal to the acetyllysine (position+2). Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to compare binding constants between wild-type and mutant forms of Sir2Tm and between additional acetyl peptide substrates with substitutions at positions-1 and +2. The results are consistent with a model in which peptide positions-1 and + 2 play a significant role in sirtuin substrate binding. This model provides a framework for identifying sirtuin substrates.
Sir2 enzymes form a unique class of NAD+-dependent deacetylases required for diverse biological processes, including transcriptional silencing, regulation of apoptosis, fat mobilization, and lifespan regulation. Sir2 activity is regulated by nicotinamide, a noncompetitive inhibitor that promotes a base-exchange reaction at the expense of deacetylation. To elucidate the mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition, we determined ternary complex structures of Sir2 enzymes containing nicotinamide. The structures show that free nicotinamide binds in a conserved pocket that participates in NAD(+) binding and catalysis. Based on our structures, we engineered a mutant that deacetylates peptides by using nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD) as a cosubstrate and is inhibited by nicotinic acid. The characteristics of the altered specificity enzyme establish that Sir2 enzymes contain a single site that participates in catalysis and nicotinamide regulation and provides additional insights into the Sir2 catalytic mechanism.
Sir2 proteins form a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases required for diverse biological processes, including transcriptional silencing, suppression of rDNA recombination, control of p53 activity, regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, and aging. Although structures of Sir2 enzymes in the presence and absence of peptide substrate or NAD(+) have been determined, the role of the enzyme in the mechanism of cleacetylation and NAD(+) cleavage is still unclear. Here, we present additional structures of Sir2Af2 in several differently complexed states: in a productive complex with NAD(+), in a nonproductive NAD(+) complex with bound ADP-ribose, and in the unliganded state. We observe a new mode of NAD(+) binding that seems to depend on acetyl-lysine binding, in which the nicotinamide ring of NAD(+) is buried in the highly conserved "C" pocket of the enzyme. We propose a detailed structure-based mechanism for cleacetylation and nicotinamide inhibition of Sir2 consistent with mutagenesis and enzymatic studies.
Sir2 proteins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that play key roles in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and life span regulation. The structure of an archaeal Sir2 enzyme, Sir2-Af2, bound to an acetylated p53 peptide reveals that the substrate binds in a cleft in the enzyme, forming an enzyme-substrate 0 sheet with two flanking strands in Sir2-Af2. The acetyllysine inserts into a conserved hydrophobic tunnel that contains the active site histidine. Comparison with other structures of Sir2 enzymes suggests that the apoenzyme undergoes a conformational change upon substrate binding. Based on the Sir2-Af2 substrate complex structure, mutations were made in the other A. fulgidus sirtuin, Sir2-Af1, that increased its affinity for the p53 peptide.
The yeast Sir2 protein, required for transcriptional silencing, has an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase (HDA) activity. Yeast extracts contain a NAD(+)-dependent HDA activity that is eliminated in a yeast strain from which SIR2 and its four homologs have been deleted. This HDA activity is also displayed by purified yeast Sir2p and homologous Archaeal, eubacterial, and human proteins, and depends completely on NAD(+) in all species tested. The yeast NPT1 gene, encoding an important NAD(+) synthesis enzyme, is required for rDNA and telomeric silencing and contributes to silencing of the HM loci. Null mutants in this gene have significantly reduced intracellular NAD(+) concentrations and have phenotypes similar to sir2 null mutants. Surprisingly, yeast from which all five SIR2 homologs have been deleted have relatively normal bulk histone acetylation levels. The evolutionary conservation of this regulated activity suggests that the Sir2 protein family represents a set of effector proteins in an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction pathway that monitors cellular energy and redox states.