Chromosomal aneuploidy is commonly observed in neoplastic diseases and is an important prognostic marker. Here we examine how gene expression profiles reflect aneuploidy and whether these profiles can be used to detect changes in chromosome copy number. We developed two methods for detecting such changes in the gene expression profile of a single sample. The first method, fold-change analysis, relies on the availability of gene expression data from a large cohort of patients with the same disease. The expression profile of the sample is compared with that of the dataset. The second method, chromosomal relative expression analysis, is more general and requires the expression data from the tested sample only. We found that the relative expression values are stable among different chromosomes and exhibit little variation between different normal tissues. We exploited this novel finding to establish the set of reference values needed to detect changes in the copy number of chromosomes in a single sample on the basis of gene expression levels. We measured the accuracy of the performance of each method by applying them to two independent leukemia datasets. The second method was also applied to two solid tumor datasets. We conclude that chromosomal aneuploidy can be detected and predicted by analysis of gene expression profiles. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
We investigated gene expression changes induced by a novel Gemini Vitamin D3 analog, RO-438-3582 (1α,25-dihydroxy-20S-21(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyl)-23-yne-26,27-hexafluoro-cholecalciferol, Ro3582), in a unique human breast MCF10 model. We used two breast epithelial cell lines from this model, namely MCF10AT1 (Ha-ras oncogene transfected MCF10A, early premalignant) and MCF10CA1a (fully malignant and metastatic derived from the MCF10AT1 line). We analyzed gene expression changes induced by Ro3582 using GeneChip technology, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, or a gene transcription assay. Interestingly, we found distinct gene expression profile differences between Ro3582-induced response of the early premalignant MCF10AT1 and the malignant and metastatic MCF10CA1a cell lines. Moreover, while the Gemini Vitamin D3 analog Ro3582 modulated the expression of several Vitamin D target genes such as the 24-hydroxylase, CD14, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in both cell lines, Ro3582 regulated many genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis as well as cell signaling pathways, such as the BMP and TGF-β systems, differently in the two cell lines. The Gemini Vitamin D3 analog Ro3582 induced more significant gene changes in the early premalignant MCF10AT1 cells than in the malignant metastatic MCF10CA1a cells, suggesting that Gemini Vitamin D3 analogs may be more effective in preventing the progression of an early stage of breast carcinogenesis than in treating late stage breast cancer.
DNA methylation in CpG islands is associated with transcriptional silencing. Accurate determination of cytosine methylation status in promoter CpG dinucleotides may provide diagnostic and prognostic value for human cancers. We have developed a quantitative PCR/LDR/Universal Array assay that allows parallel evaluation of methylation status of 75 CpG dinucleotides in the promoter regions of 15 tumor suppressor genes (CDKN2B, CDKN2A, CDKN2D, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, TP53, BRCA1, TIMP3, APC, RASSF1, CDH1, MGMT, DAPK1, GSTP1, and RARB). When compared with an independent pyrosequencing method at a single promoter, the two approaches gave good correlation. In a study using 15 promoter regions and seven blinded tumor cell lines, our technology was capable of distinguishing methylation profiles that identified cancer cell lines derived from the same origins. Preliminary studies using 96 colorectaltumor samples and 73 matched normal tissues indicated CpG methylation is a gene-specific and nonrandom event in colon cancer. This new approach is suitable for clinical applications where sample quantity and purity can be limiting factors.
Several studies have verified the existence of multiple chromosomal abnormalities in colon cancer. However, the relationships between DNA copy number and gene expression have not been adequately explored nor globally monitored during the progression of the disease. In this work, three types of array-generated data (expression, single nucleotide polymorphism, and comparative genomic hybridization) were collected from a large set of colon cancer patients at various stages of the disease. Probes were annotated to specific chromosomal locations and coordinated alterations in DNA copy number and transcription levels were revealed at specific positions. We show that across many large regions of the genome, changes in expression level are correlated with alterations in DNA content. Often, large chromosomal segments, containing multiple genes, are transcriptionally affected in a coordinated way, and we show that the underlying mechanism is a corresponding change in DNA content. This implies that whereas specific chromosomal abnormalities may arise stochastically, the associated changes in expression of some or all of the affected genes are responsible for selecting cells bearing these abnormalities for clonal expansion. Indeed, particular chromosomal regions are frequently gained and overexpressed (e.g., 7p, 8q, 13q, and 20q) or lost and underexpressed (e.g., 1p, 4, 5q, 8p, 14q, 15q, and 18) in primary colon tumors, making it likely that these changes favor tumorigenicity. Furthermore, we show that these aberrations are absent in normal colon mucosa, appear in benign adenomas (albeit only in a small fraction of the samples), become more frequent as disease advances, and are found in the majority of metastatic samples.
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is being developed as a therapeutic agent by virtue of its being a potent modulator of signal transduction in pre-clinical models of AML [Strair RK, Schaar D, Goodell L, Aisner J, Chin KV, Eid J, et al. Administration of a phorbol ester to patients with hematological malignancies: preliminary results from a phase I clinical trial of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Clin Cancer Res 2002;8:2512-8]. In this report, we identify a subset of primary AML samples that undergoes apoptosis after exposure to TPA and demonstrate that TPA-induced cytotoxicity is associated with modulation of the ERK signaling pathway. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP), as potential regulators of AML cell signaling, indicates that these genes are coordinately regulated and rapidly induced by TPA in primary AML cells. Therefore, TPA-induced primary AML cytotoxicity is associated with modulation of ERK signaling which may be partially mediated by regulation of phosphatase expression.
Summary: We introduce a novel unsupervised approach for the organization and visualization of multidimensional data. At the heart of the method is a presentation of the full pairwise distance matrix of the data points, viewed in pseudocolor. The ordering of points is iteratively permuted in search of a linear ordering, which can be used to study embedded shapes. Several examples indicate how the shapes of certain structures in the data (elongated, circular and compact) manifest themselves visually in our permuted distance matrix. It is important to identify the elongated objects since they are often associated with a set of hidden variables, underlying continuous variation in the data. The problem of determining an optimal linear ordering is shown to be NP-Complete, and therefore an iterative search algorithm with O(n3) step-complexity is suggested. By using sorting points into neighborhoods, i.e. SPIN to analyze colon cancer expression data we were able to address the serious problem of sample heterogeneity, which hinders identification of metastasis related genes in our data. Our methodology brings to light the continuous variation of heterogeneity—starting with homogeneous tumor samples and gradually increasing the amount of another tissue. Ordering the samples according to their degree of contamination by unrelated tissue allows the separation of genes associated with irrelevant contamination from those related to cancer progression.
We present and review coupled two-way clustering, a method designed to mine gene expression data. The method identifies submatrices of the total expression matrix, whose clustering analysis reveals partitions of samples (and genes) into biologically relevant classes. We demonstrate, on data from colon and breast cancer, that we are able to identify partitions that elude standard clustering analysis
Factors that contribute to adverse sedation events in children undergoing procedures were examined using the technique of critical incident analysis.
We developed a database that consists of descriptions of adverse sedation events derived from the Food and Drug Administration's adverse drug event reporting system, from the US Pharmacopeia, and from a survey of pediatric specialists. One hundred eighteen reports were reviewed for factors that may have contributed to the adverse sedation event. The outcome, ranging in severity from death to no harm, was noted. Individual reports were first examined separately by 4 physicians trained in pediatric anesthesiology, pediatric critical care medicine, or pediatric emergency medicine. Only reports for which all 4 reviewers agreed on the contributing factors and outcome were included in the final analysis.
Of the 95 incidents with consensus agreement on the contributing factors, 51 resulted in death, 9 in permanent neurologic injury, 21 in prolonged hospitalization without injury, and in 14 there was no harm. Patients receiving sedation in nonhospital-based settings compared with hospital-based settings were older and healthier. The venue of sedation was not associated with the incidence of presenting respiratory events (eg, desaturation, apnea, laryngospasm, approximately 80% in each venue) but more cardiac arrests occurred as the second (53.6% vs 14%) and third events (25% vs 7%) in nonhospital-based facilities. Inadequate resuscitation was rated as being a determinant of adverse outcome more frequently in nonhospital-based events (57.1% vs 2.3%). Death and permanent neurologic injury occurred more frequently in nonhospital-based facilities (92.8% vs 37.2%). Successful outcome (prolonged hospitalization without injury or no harm) was associated with the use of pulse oximetry compared with a lack of any documented monitoring that was associated with unsuccessful outcome (death or permanent neurologic injury). In addition, pulse oximetry monitoring of patients sedated in hospitals was uniformly associated with successful outcomes whereas in the nonhospital-based venue, 4 out of 5 suffered adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes despite the benefit of an early warning regarding oxygenation likely reflect lack of skill in assessment and in the use of appropriate interventions, ie, a failure to rescue the patient.
This study-a critical incident analysis-identifies several features associated with adverse sedation events and poor outcome. There were differences in outcomes for venue: adverse outcomes (permanent neurologic injury or death) occurred more frequently in a nonhospital-based facility, whereas successful outcomes (prolonged hospitalization or no harm) occurred more frequently in a hospital-based setting. Inadequate resuscitation was more often associated with a nonhospital-based setting. Inadequate and inconsistent physiologic monitoring (particularly failure to use or respond appropriately to pulse oximetry) was another major factor contributing to poor outcome in all venues. Other issues rated by the reviewers were: inadequate presedation medical evaluation, lack of an independent observer, medication errors, and inadequate recovery procedures. Uniform, specialty-independent guidelines for monitoring children during and after sedation are essential. Age and size-appropriate equipment and medications for resuscitation should be immediately available regardless of the location where the child is sedated. All health care providers who sedate children, regardless of practice venue, should have advanced airway assessment and management training and be skilled in the resuscitation of infants and children so that they can successfully rescue their patient should an adverse sedation event occur.
Using an oligonucleotide array containing sequences complementary to approximately 3200 full-length human cDNAs and 3400 expressed sequence tags (GeneChip, Affymetrix), mRNA expression patterns were probed in 18 colon adenocarcinomas and 4 adenomas. Paired normal tissue was available and analyzed for each of the tumors. Relatively few changes in transcript expression are associated with colon cancer. Nineteen transcripts (0.48% of those detected) had at least 4-10.5-fold higher mRNA expression in carcinoma compared with paired normal samples, whereas 47 transcripts (1.3% of those detected) had at least 4-38-fold or lower expression in the tumor tissue compared with the normal samples. Some of these differences were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Many of these transcripts were already known to be abnormally expressed in neoplastic tissue in general, or colon cancer in particular, and several of these differences were also observed in premalignant adenoma samples. A two-way hierarchical clustering algorithm successfully distinguished adenoma from adenocarcinoma and normal tissue, generating a phylogenetic tree that appropriately represented the clinical relationship between the three tissue types included in the analysis. This supports the concept that genome-wide expression profiling may permit a molecular classification of solid tumors.
Oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to quantitate mRNA levels from a large number of genes regulated by the p53 transcription factor. Responses to DNA damage and to zinc-inducible p53 were compared for their transcription patterns in cell culture. A cluster analysis of these data demonstrates that genes induced by gamma radiation, UV radiation, and the zinc-induced p53 form distinct sets and subsets with a few genes in common to all these treatments. Cell type- or cell line-specific p53 responses were detected. When p53 proteins were induced with zinc, the kinetics of induction or repression of mRNAs from p53-responsive genes fell into eight distinct classes, five different kinetics of induction, and three different kinetics of repression. In addition, low levels of p53 in a cell induced or repressed only a subset of genes observed at higher p53 levels. The results of this study demonstrate that the nature of the p53 response in diverse mRNA species depends on the levels of p53 protein in a cell, the type of inducing agent or event, and the cell type employed. Of 6000 genes examined for p53 regulatory responses, 107 induced and 54 repressed genes fell into categories of apoptosis and growth arrest, cytoskeletal functions, growth factors and their inhibitors, extracellular matrix, and adhesion genes.
Measuring the DNA content of eukaryotic cells is a fundamental task in biology and medicine. We have observed a linear relationship between the DNA content of eukaryotic cells and the change in capacitance that is evoked by the passage of individual cells across a 1-kHz electric field. This relationship is species-independent; consequently, we have developed a microfluidic technique-"capacitance cytometry"-that can be used to quantify the DNA content of single eukaryotic cells and to analyze the cell-cycle kinetics of populations of cells. Comparisons with standard flow cytometry demonstrate the sensitivity of this new technique.
Oligonucleotide arrays can provide a broad picture of the state of the cell, by monitoring the expression level of thousands of genes at the same time. It is of interest to develop techniques for extracting useful information from the resulting data sets. Here we report the application of a two-way clustering method for analyzing a data set consisting of the expression patterns of different cell types. Gene expression in 40 tumor and 22 normal colon tissue samples was analyzed with an Affymetrix oligonucleotide array complementary to more than 6,500 human genes. An efficient two-way clustering algorithm was applied to both the genes and the tissues, revealing broad coherent patterns that suggest a high degree of organization underlying gene expression in these tissues. Coregulated families of genes clustered together, as demonstrated for the ribosomal proteins. Clustering also separated cancerous from noncancerous tissue and cell lines from in vivo tissues on the basis of subtle distributed patterns of genes even when expression of individual genes varied only slightly between the tissues. Two-way clustering thus may be of use both in classifying genes into functional groups and in classifying tissues based on gene expression.
The tumor suppressor p53 has been identified as a component of a mitotic spindle checkpoint. When exposed to a spindle-disrupting drug such as nocodazole, fibroblasts derived from mice having wild-type p53 are blocked with a 4N content of DNA. Conversely, fibroblasts from p53-deficient mice become polyploid. To learn if transcriptional activation of downstream genes by p53 plays a role in this putative checkpoint, three cell lines were exposed to nocodazole. In one line, p53 protein is not expressed, while the other two cell lines over-express p53. In one of these two lines, the N-terminal transactivation domain is wild-type and in the second, this region contains a mutation that eliminates the ability of the protein to act as a transcription factor. Incubation with nocodazole of cells containing wild-type p53 results in accumulation of both 2N and 4N populations of cells. Under the same conditions, cells containing a transactivation-deficient mutant of p53 accumulate a 4N population of cells, but not a 2N population of cells. Cells entirely deficient in p53 protein become hyperdiploid, and display 8N to 16N DNA content. In all three cell lines, nocodazole elicited an initial increase in mitotic cells, but within 24 h the mitotic index returned to baseline. Expression patterns of cyclins B and D indicated that following entry into mitosis, the cells returned to a G1 state but with 4N DNA content. Subsequent re-duplication of DNA beyond 4N is prevented in cells containing either wild-type or transcriptionally inactive p53 protein. In cells entirely lacking p53 protein, DNA is re-duplicated (without an intervening mitosis) and the cells become hyperdiploid. These experiments indicate that p53 does not participate in the transient mitotic arrest that follows spindle disruption, but is essential to prevent subsequent reduplication of DNA and the resulting hyperdiploid state. This function is intact in a mutant that is transcriptionally inactive.