Natural soils are host to a high density1 and diversity2 of microorganisms, and even deep-earth porous rocks provide a habitat for active microbial communities3. In these environments, microbial transport by disordered flows is relevant for a broad range of natural and engineered processes, from biochemical cycling to remineralization and bioremediation4–7. Yet, how bacteria are transported and distributed in the subsurface as a result of the disordered flow and the associated chemical gradients characteristic of porous media has remained poorly understood, in part because studies have so far focused on steady, macroscale chemical gradients8–10. Here, we use a microfluidic model system that captures flow disorder and chemical gradients at the pore scale to quantify the transport and dispersion of the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis in porous media. We observe that chemotaxis strongly modulates the persistence of bacteria in low-flow regions of the pore space, resulting in a 100% increase in their dispersion coefficient. This effect stems directly from the strong pore-scale gradients created by flow disorder and demonstrates that the microscale interplay between bacterial behaviour and pore-scale disorder can impact the macroscale dynamics of biota in the subsurface.
B. K. Primkulov, A. A. Pahlavan, L. Bourouiba J. W. M. Bush R. Juanes. “Spin coating of capillary tubes”. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 886 (2020): , 886, A30. Web.
We observe the formation of bubbles and drops on a daily basis, from dripping faucets to raindrops entraining bubbles on the surface of a lake. The ubiquity of the phenomenon masks the fascinating underlying nonlinear dynamics that is such an important aspect of modern physics. Here, we report on the surprising observation that confinement makes the pinch-off of a bubble a universal process, as opposed to the unconfined case, where pinch-off is sensitive to the details of the experimental setting. We explain how the motion of the contact line, where the liquid, gas, and solid phases meet, leads to self-similar dynamics that effectively erase the memory of the system. Our observations have implications for immiscible flow phenomena from microfluidics to geophysical flows, where confinement, together with fluid–solid physicochemical interactions, play a key role.The pinch-off of a bubble is an example of the formation of a singularity, exhibiting a characteristic separation of length and time scales. Because of this scale separation, one expects universal dynamics that collapse into self-similar behavior determined by the relative importance of viscous, inertial, and capillary forces. Surprisingly, however, the pinch-off of a bubble in a large tank of viscous liquid is known to be nonuniversal. Here, we show that the pinch-off dynamics of a bubble confined in a capillary tube undergo a sequence of two distinct self-similar regimes, even though the entire evolution is controlled by a balance between viscous and capillary forces. We demonstrate that the early-time self-similar regime restores universality to bubble pinch-off by erasing the system’s memory of the initial conditions. Our findings have important implications for bubble/drop generation in microfluidic devices, with applications in inkjet printing, medical imaging, and synthesis of particulate materials.
Flow induced in a viscoelastic fluid by a linearly stretched sheet is investigated assuming that the fluid is Maxwellian and the sheet is subjected to a transverse magnetic field. The objective is to investigate the effects of parameters such as elasticity number, magnetic number, radiative heat transfer, Prandtl number, and Eckert number on the temperature field above the sheet. To do this, boundary layer theory will be used to simplify energy and momentum equations assuming that fluid physical/rheological properties remain constant. A suitable similarity transformation will be used to transform boundary layer equations from PDEs into ODEs. Homotopy analysis method (HAM) will be invoked to find an analytical solution for the temperature field above the sheet knowing the velocity profiles (see Alizadeh-Pahlavan et al. [Alizadeh-Pahlavan A, Aliakbar V, Vakili-Farahani F, Sadeghy K. MHD flows of UCM fluids above porous stretching sheets using two-auxiliary parameter homotopy analysis method. Commun. Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat, in press]). The importance of manipulating the transverse velocity component, v, will be discussed on the temperature field above the sheet.
In the present work, unsteady MHD flow of a Maxwellian fluid above an impulsively stretched sheet is studied under the assumption that boundary layer approximation is applicable. The objective is to find an analytical solution which can be used to check the performance of computational codes in cases where such an analytical solution does not exist. A convenient similarity transformation has been found to reduce the equations into a single highly nonlinear PDE. Homotopy analysis method (HAM) will be used to find an explicit analytical solution for the PDE so obtained. The effects of magnetic parameter, elasticity number, and the time elapsed are studied on the flow characteristics.
The performance of a two-auxiliary-parameter homotopy analysis method (HAM) is investigated in solving laminar MHD flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid (UCM) above a porous isothermal stretching sheet. The analysis is carried out up to the 20th-order of approximation, and the effect of parameters such as elasticity number, suction/injection velocity, and magnetic number are studied on the velocity field above the sheet. The results will be contrasted with those reported recently by Hayat et al. [Hayat T, Abbas Z, Sajid M. Series solution for the upper-convected Maxwell fluid over a porous stretching plate. Phys Lett A 358;2006:396–403] obtained using a third-order one-auxiliary-parameter homotopy analysis method. It is concluded that the flow reversal phenomenon as predicted by Hayat et al. (2006) may have arisen because of the inadequacies of using just one-auxiliary-parameter in their analysis. That is, no flow reversal is predicted to occur if instead of using one-auxiliary-parameter use is made of two auxiliary parameters together with a more convenient set of base functions to assure the convergence of the series used to solve the highly nonlinear ODE governing the flow.
In this Letter, we propose a simple approach using HAM to obtain accurate totally analytical solution of viscous fluid flow over a flat plate. First, we show that the solution obtained using HPM is not a reliable one; moreover, we show that HPM is only a special case of HAM and its basic assumptions are restrictive rather than useful. We set ℏ=−1 for the case of comparison of our results to those obtained using HPM. Afterwards, we introduce an extra auxiliary parameter and a straightforward approach to find best values of this auxiliary parameter which plays a prominent role in the frame of our solution and makes it more convergent in comparison to previous works.