1243’teki Moğol fethinin ardından Anadolu’da İslami mimari alanında yaşanan gelişmeleri ele alan Moğol Fethinden Sonra Anadolu’nun Yeniden İnşası, bu dönemde gerçekleşen karmaşık yönetim değişimlerinin, nüfus hareketlerinin ve kültürel dönüşümlerin mimariyi ne yönde etkilediğini ortaya koyuyor.
Bu dönemde inşa edilen anıtlar birçok amaca hizmet etmiştir: Camiler ibadet ve toplanma yeridir, medreseler İslam hukuku ve ilahiyat eğitimi merkezleridir, kervansaraylar tüccarlar ile seyyahlar açısından ticaret yollarını güvenli hale getirmiştir. Anıtlara ilişkin ayrıntılı gözlemler yapan Patricia Blessing’in çalışması, mimariyi çok katmanlı bir yaklaşımla ele alıyor. Anıtlarda bulunan Arapça, Farsça ve Türkçe yazılı kaynaklardan ve tarihsel fotoğraflardan faydalanan Blessing, bu sınır bölgesinin karmaşıklığını yansıtan Ortaçağ Anadolu’su İslami mimarisinin bir resmini çiziyor.
Yeni banilerin ortaya çıktığı, zanaatkârların komşu bölgelere göç ettiği ve yerel malzemelerin belirli bölgelerin simgesi niteliğindeki tasarımları dönüştürdüğü dönemi taze bir bakış açısıyla ele alan Moğol Fethinden Sonra Anadolu’nun Yeniden İnşası, mimari, tarih ve dinin iç içe geçen anlatımlarından beslenerek, Ortaçağ Ortadoğu’sunun karmaşık yerel, bölgesel ve bölgelerarası sınır kültürü hakkında kapsamlı bir yaklaşım sunuyor.
Anatolia was home to a large number of polities in the medieval period. Given its location at the geographical and chronological juncture between Byzantines and the Ottomans, its story tends to be read through the Seljuk experience. This obscures the multiple experiences and spaces of Anatolia under the Byzantine empire, Turko-Muslim dynasties contemporary to the Seljuks, the Mongol Ilkhanids, and the various beyliks of eastern and western Anatolia.
This book looks beyond political structures and towards a reconsideration of the interactions between the rural and the urban; an analysis of the relationships between architecture, culture and power; and an examination of the region’s multiple geographies. In order to expand historiographical perspectives it draws on a wide variety of sources (architectural, artistic, documentary and literary), including texts composed in several languages (Arabic, Armenian, Byzantine Greek, Persian and Turkish).
Original in its coverage of this period from the perspective of multiple polities, religions and languages, this volume is also the first to truly embrace the cultural complexity that was inherent in the reality of daily life in medieval Anatolia and surrounding regions.
This book is a study of Islamic architecture in Anatolia following the Mongol conquest in 1243. Complex shifts in rule, movements of population, and cultural transformations took place that affected architecture on multiple levels. Beginning with the Mongol conquest of Anatolia, and ending with the demise of the Ilkhanid Empire, centered in Iran, in the 1330s, this book considers how the integration of Anatolia into the Mongol world system transformed architecture and patronage in the region. Traditionally, this period has been studied within the larger narrative of a progression from Seljuk to Ottoman rule and architecture, in a historiography that privileges Turkish national identity. Once Anatolia is studied within the framework of the Mongol Empire, however, the region no longer appears as an isolated case; rather it is integrated into a broader context beyond the modern borders of Turkey, Iran, and the Caucasus republics. The monuments built during this period served a number of purposes: mosques were places of prayer and congregation, madrasas were used to teach Islamic law and theology, and caravanserais secured trade routes for merchants and travelers. This study analyzes architecture on multiple, overlapping levels, based on a detailed observation of the monuments. The layers of information extracted from the monuments themselves, from written sources in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, and from historical photographs, shape an image of Islamic architecture in medieval Anatolia that reflects the complexities of this frontier region. New patrons emerged, craftsmen migrated between neighboring regions, and the use of locally available materials fostered the transformation of designs in ways that are closely tied to specific places. Starting from these sources, this book untangles the intertwined narratives of architecture, history, and religion to provide a broader understanding of frontier culture in the medieval Middle East, with its complex interaction of local, regional, and trans-regional identities.
This article discusses the relationship between textiles and stucco decoration, and the signifi- cation that this implies, in late medieval Iberia, focusing on the Monastery of Las Huelgas in Burgos. In the late thirteenth century, stucco panels were added to the vault of the Gothic cloister in this Cistercian monastery, built under royal patronage. These panels contain a range of motifs derived from textiles produced in the eastern Mediterranean, as well as in the Muslim-ruled cities of al-Andalus. Such textiles were found in royal burials, located in the church of the monastery. The stucco decoration stands in a complex relationship vis-à- vis textiles that were used for royal clothing. Without copying textiles exactly, the flexible medium of stucco evokes silk fabrics that would also be worn during ceremonial events at the site. Thus, a complex textile spatiality emerges that functions most readily with textiles present. Yet, this connection also works—by way of haptic evocation—when textiles were only present in the evocation rendered in stucco.
In the second quarter of the fifteenth century, a new phenomenon appears in Ottoman architecture: tiles with blue-and-white decoration, associated with tile-makers from Tabriz. These tiles appear most prominently in the Muradiye in Edirne, completed in 839/1435-36. They mark the beginning of an aesthetic shift, away from black-line (or cuerda seca) tiles inspired by Timurid and Aqquyunlu models, toward the blue-and-white tiles and vessels of the so-called Baba Naqqaş style of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The mihrāb of the Muradiye features both kinds of tiles, thus illustrating this shift at its early stages. Within the parameters of an international Timurid style, the artistic production of this period (tile-work in particular) has been considered an offshoot of Timurid court patronage in eastern Iran and Central Asia. In the larger context of the fifteenth-century Islamic world, however, related tiles and vessels were also produced in Damascus and Cairo. This article examines the tiles of the Muradiye Mosque within the framework of artistic centers, the movements of motifs, objects, and makers, and their impact on architecture in the fifteenth-century Ottoman empire.