Alfaro-Aco R, Thawani A, Petry S. Biochemical reconstitution of branching microtubule nucleation. Elife 2020;9Abstract
Microtubules are nucleated from specific locations at precise times in the cell cycle. However, the factors that constitute these microtubule nucleation pathways and their mode of action still need to be identified. Using purified proteins we biochemically reconstitute branching microtubule nucleation, which is critical for chromosome segregation. We found that besides the microtubule nucleator gamma-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC), the branching effectors augmin and TPX2 are required to efficiently nucleate microtubules from pre-existing microtubules. TPX2 has the unexpected capacity to directly recruit γ-TuRC as well as augmin, which in turn targets more γ-TuRC along the microtubule lattice. TPX2 and augmin enable γ-TuRC-dependent microtubule nucleation at preferred branching angles of less than 90 degrees from regularly-spaced patches along microtubules. This work provides a blueprint for other microtubule nucleation pathways and helps explain how microtubules are generated in the spindle.
King MR, Petry S. Phase separation of TPX2 enhances and spatially coordinates microtubule nucleation. Nat Commun 2020;11(1):270.Abstract
Phase separation of substrates and effectors is proposed to enhance biological reaction rates and efficiency. Targeting protein for Xklp2 (TPX2) is an effector of branching microtubule nucleation in spindles and functions with the substrate tubulin by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that TPX2 phase separates into a co-condensate with tubulin, which mediates microtubule nucleation in vitro and in isolated cytosol. TPX2-tubulin co-condensation preferentially occurs on pre-existing microtubules, the site of branching microtubule nucleation, at the endogenous and physiologically relevant concentration of TPX2. Truncation and chimera versions of TPX2 suggest that TPX2-tubulin co-condensation enhances the efficiency of TPX2-mediated branching microtubule nucleation. Finally, the known inhibitor of TPX2, the importin-α/β heterodimer, regulates TPX2 condensation in vitro and, consequently, branching microtubule nucleation activity in isolated cytosol. Our study demonstrates how regulated phase separation can simultaneously enhance reaction efficiency and spatially coordinate microtubule nucleation, which may facilitate rapid and accurate spindle formation.
Thawani A, Stone HA, Shaevitz JW, Petry S. Spatiotemporal organization of branched microtubule networks. Elife 2019;8Abstract
To understand how chromosomes are segregated, it is necessary to explain the precise spatiotemporal organization of microtubules (MTs) in the mitotic spindle. We use egg extracts to study the nucleation and dynamics of MTs in branched networks, a process that is critical for spindle assembly. Surprisingly, new branched MTs preferentially originate near the minus-ends of pre-existing MTs. A sequential reaction model, consisting of deposition of nucleation sites on an existing MT, followed by rate-limiting nucleation of branches, reproduces the measured spatial profile of nucleation, the distribution of MT plus-ends and tubulin intensity. By regulating the availability of the branching effectors TPX2, augmin and γ-TuRC, combined with single-molecule observations, we show that first TPX2 is deposited on pre-existing MTs, followed by binding of augmin/γ-TuRC to result in the nucleation of branched MTs. In sum, regulating the localization and kinetics of nucleation effectors governs the architecture of branched MT networks.
Song J-G, Petry S. Dissecting Protein Complexes in Branching Microtubule Nucleation Using Meiotic Egg Extracts. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2018;2018(9):pdb.prot100958.Abstract
The mitotic spindle is the microtubule-based apparatus that reliably segregates chromosomes during cell division. Recently, it was discovered that microtubules originate within the mitotic spindle by nucleating off of existing spindle microtubules. This mechanism, termed branching microtubule nucleation, allows the efficient amplification of microtubules while preserving their original polarity as required in the spindle. Three molecular players are known to be involved in this process, namely, the protein TPX2, the protein complex augmin, and the gamma-tubulin ring complex; however, little is known about the assembly of the protein complexes. Here, we use the eight-subunit augmin complex as an example of how to dissect the function and assembly of a protein complex using meiotic egg extracts. Specifically, immunodepletion combined with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is used to identify the role of the protein complex. In parallel, immunoprecipitation (IP) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are used to infer how it is assembled. This approach can be applied to investigate the assembly of other multisubunit protein complexes that function in branching microtubule nucleation and mitotic spindle assembly.
Dixit R, Petry S. The life of a microtubule. Mol Biol Cell 2018;29(6):689.
Rale MJ, Kadzik RS, Petry S. Phase Transitioning the Centrosome into a Microtubule Nucleator. Biochemistry 2018;57(1):30-37.Abstract
Centrosomes are self-assembling, micron-scale, nonmembrane bound organelles that nucleate microtubules (MTs) and organize the microtubule cytoskeleton of the cell. They orchestrate critical cellular processes such as ciliary-based motility, vesicle trafficking, and cell division. Much is known about the role of the centrosome in these contexts, but we have a less comprehensive understanding of how the centrosome assembles and generates microtubules. Studies over the past 10 years have fundamentally shifted our view of these processes. Subdiffraction imaging has probed the amorphous haze of material surrounding the core of the centrosome revealing a complex, hierarchically organized structure whose composition and size changes profoundly during the transition from interphase to mitosis. New biophysical insights into protein phase transitions, where a diffuse protein spontaneously separates into a locally concentrated, nonmembrane bounded compartment, have provided a fresh perspective into how the centrosome might rapidly condense from diffuse cytoplasmic components. In this Perspective, we focus on recent findings that identify several centrosomal proteins that undergo phase transitions. We discuss how to reconcile these results with the current model of the underlying organization of proteins in the centrosome. Furthermore, we reflect on how these findings impact our understanding of how the centrosome undergoes self-assembly and promotes MT nucleation.
Thawani A, Kadzik RS, Petry S. XMAP215 is a microtubule nucleation factor that functions synergistically with the γ-tubulin ring complex. Nat Cell Biol 2018;20(5):575-585.Abstract
How microtubules (MTs) are generated in the cell is a major question in understanding how the cytoskeleton is assembled. For several decades, γ-tubulin has been accepted as the universal MT nucleator of the cell. Although there is evidence that γ-tubulin complexes are not the sole MT nucleators, identification of other nucleation factors has proven difficult. Here, we report that the well-characterized MT polymerase XMAP215 (chTOG/Msps/Stu2p/Alp14/Dis1 homologue) is essential for MT nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts. The concentration of XMAP215 determines the extent of MT nucleation. Even though XMAP215 and the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) possess minimal nucleation activity individually, together, these factors synergistically stimulate MT nucleation in vitro. The amino-terminal TOG domains 1-5 of XMAP215 bind to αβ-tubulin and promote MT polymerization, whereas the conserved carboxy terminus is required for efficient MT nucleation and directly binds to γ-tubulin. In summary, XMAP215 and γ-TuRC together function as the principal nucleation module that generates MTs in cells.
Song J-G, King MR, Zhang R, Kadzik RS, Thawani A, Petry S. Mechanism of how augmin directly targets the γ-tubulin ring complex to microtubules. J Cell Biol 2018;217(7):2417-2428.Abstract
Microtubules (MTs) must be generated from precise locations to form the structural frameworks required for cell shape and function. MTs are nucleated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC), but it remains unclear how γ-TuRC gets to the right location. Augmin has been suggested to be a γ-TuRC targeting factor and is required for MT nucleation from preexisting MTs. To determine augmin's architecture and function, we purified augmin from insect cells. We demonstrate that augmin is sufficient to target γ-TuRC to MTs by in vitro reconstitution. Augmin is composed of two functional parts. One module (tetramer-II) is necessary for MT binding, whereas the other (tetramer-III) interacts with γ-TuRC. Negative-stain electron microscopy reveals that both tetramers fit into the Y-shape of augmin, and MT branching assays reveal that both are necessary for MT nucleation. The finding that augmin can directly bridge MTs with γ-TuRC via these two tetramers adds to our mechanistic understanding of how MTs can be nucleated from preexisting MTs.
Alfaro-Aco R, Petry S. How TPX2 helps microtubules branch out. Cell Cycle 2017;16(17):1560-1561.
Alfaro-Aco R, Thawani A, Petry S. Structural analysis of the role of TPX2 in branching microtubule nucleation. J Cell Biol 2017;216(4):983-997.Abstract
The mitotic spindle consists of microtubules (MTs), which are nucleated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC). How the γ-TuRC gets activated at the right time and location remains elusive. Recently, it was uncovered that MTs nucleate from preexisting MTs within the mitotic spindle, which requires the protein TPX2, but the mechanism basis for TPX2 action is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of TPX2 in branching MT nucleation. We establish the domain organization of TPX2 and define the minimal TPX2 version that stimulates branching MT nucleation, which we find is unrelated to TPX2's ability to nucleate MTs in vitro. Several domains of TPX2 contribute to its MT-binding and bundling activities. However, the property necessary for TPX2 to induce branching MT nucleation is contained within newly identified γ-TuRC nucleation activator motifs. Separation-of-function mutations leave the binding of TPX2 to γ-TuRC intact, whereas branching MT nucleation is abolished, suggesting that TPX2 may activate γ-TuRC to promote branching MT nucleation.
Petry S. Mechanisms of Mitotic Spindle Assembly. Annu Rev Biochem 2016;85:659-83.Abstract
Life depends on cell proliferation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes, which are mediated by the microtubule (MT)-based mitotic spindle and ∼200 essential MT-associated proteins. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how the mitotic spindle is assembled and achieves chromosome segregation is still missing. This is mostly due to the density of MTs in the spindle, which presumably precludes their direct observation. Recent insight has been gained into the molecular building plan of the metaphase spindle using bulk and single-molecule measurements combined with computational modeling. MT nucleation was uncovered as a key principle of spindle assembly, and mechanistic details about MT nucleation pathways and their coordination are starting to be revealed. Lastly, advances in studying spindle assembly can be applied to address the molecular mechanisms of how the spindle segregates chromosomes.
King M, Petry S. Visualizing and Analyzing Branching Microtubule Nucleation Using Meiotic Xenopus Egg Extracts and TIRF Microscopy. Methods Mol Biol 2016;1413:77-85.Abstract
Mitotic and meiotic spindles consist primarily of microtubules, which originate from centrosomes and within the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence suggested that microtubules also originate throughout the spindle, but the high microtubule density within the spindle precludes the direct observation of this phenomenon. By using meiotic Xenopus laevis egg extract and employing total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, microtubule nucleation from preexisting microtubules could be demonstrated and analyzed. Branching microtubule nucleation is an ideal mechanism to assemble and maintain a mitotic spindle, because microtubule numbers are amplified while preserving their polarity. Here, we describe the assays that made these findings possible and the experiments that helped identify the key molecular players involved.
Alfaro-Aco R, Petry S. Building the Microtubule Cytoskeleton Piece by Piece. J Biol Chem 2015;290(28):17154-62.Abstract
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton gives cells their shape, organizes the cellular interior, and segregates chromosomes. These functions rely on the precise arrangement of MTs, which is achieved by the coordinated action of MT-associated proteins (MAPs). We highlight the first and most important examples of how different MAP activities are combined in vitro to create an ensemble function that exceeds the simple addition of their individual activities, and how the Xenopus laevis egg extract system has been utilized as a powerful intermediate between cellular and purified systems to uncover the design principles of self-organized MT networks in the cell.
Petry S, Vale RD. Microtubule nucleation at the centrosome and beyond. Nat Cell Biol 2015;17(9):1089-93.
Petry S, Groen AC, Ishihara K, Mitchison TJ, Vale RD. Branching microtubule nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts mediated by augmin and TPX2. Cell 2013;152(4):768-77.Abstract
The microtubules that comprise mitotic spindles in animal cells are nucleated at centrosomes and by spindle assembly factors that are activated in the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence has suggested that microtubules also might be nucleated from pre-existing microtubules throughout the spindle, but this process has not been observed directly. Here, we demonstrate microtubule nucleation from the sides of existing microtubules in meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. Daughter microtubules grow at a low branch angle and with the same polarity as mother filaments. Branching microtubule nucleation requires γ-tubulin and augmin and is stimulated by factors previously implicated in chromatin-stimulated nucleation, guanosine triphosphate(GTP)-bound Ran and its effector, TPX2. Because of the rapid amplification of microtubule numbers and the preservation of microtubule polarity, microtubule-dependent microtubule nucleation is well suited for spindle assembly and maintenance.
Petry S, Pugieux C, Nédélec FJ, Vale RD. Augmin promotes meiotic spindle formation and bipolarity in Xenopus egg extracts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108(35):14473-8.Abstract
Female meiotic spindles in many organisms form in the absence of centrosomes, the organelle typically associated with microtubule (MT) nucleation. Previous studies have proposed that these meiotic spindles arise from RanGTP-mediated MT nucleation in the vicinity of chromatin; however, whether this process is sufficient for spindle formation is unknown. Here, we investigated whether a recently proposed spindle-based MT nucleation pathway that involves augmin, an 8-subunit protein complex, also contributes to spindle morphogenesis. We used an assay system in which hundreds of meiotic spindles can be observed forming around chromatin-coated beads after introduction of Xenopus egg extracts. Spindles forming in augmin-depleted extracts showed reduced rates of MT formation and were predominantly multipolar, revealing a function of augmin in stabilizing the bipolar shape of the acentrosomal meiotic spindle. Our studies also have uncovered an apparent augmin-independent MT nucleation process from acentrosomal poles, which becomes increasingly active over time and appears to partially rescue the spindle defects that arise from augmin depletion. Our studies reveal that spatially and temporally distinct MT generation pathways from chromatin, spindle MTs, and acentrosomal poles all contribute to robust bipolar spindle formation in meiotic extracts.
Petry S, Vale RD. A new cap for kinetochore fibre minus ends. Nat Cell Biol 2011;13(12):1389-91.Abstract
In mitotic spindles, each sister chromatid is directly attached to a spindle pole through microtubule bundles known as kinetochore fibres. Microspherule protein 1 (MCRS1) is now shown to support spindle assembly by localizing to the minus ends of kinetochore fibres and protecting them from depolymerization.
Uehara R, Nozawa R-suke, Tomioka A, Petry S, Vale RD, Obuse C, Goshima G. The augmin complex plays a critical role in spindle microtubule generation for mitotic progression and cytokinesis in human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;106(17):6998-7003.Abstract
The mitotic spindle is constructed from microtubules (MTs) nucleated from centrosomes, chromosome proximal regions, and preexisting spindle MTs. Augmin, a recently identified protein complex, is a critical factor in spindle MT-based MT generation in Drosophila S2 cells. Previously, we identified one subunit of human augmin. Here, by using mass spectrometry, we identified the full human augmin complex of 8 subunits and show that it interacts with the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gamma-TuRC). Unlike augmin-depleted S2 cells, in which the defect in spindle-mediated MT generation is mostly compensated by centrosomal MTs, augmin knockdown alone in HeLa cells triggers the spindle checkpoint, reduces tension on sister kinetochores, and severely impairs metaphase progression. Human augmin knockdown also reduces the number of central spindle MTs during anaphase and causes late-stage cytokinesis failure. A link between augmin and gamma-TuRC is likely critical for these functions, because a gamma-TuRC mutant that attenuates interaction with augmin does not restore function in vivo. These results demonstrate that MT generation mediated by augmin and gamma-TuRC is critical for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in human cells.
Weixlbaumer A, Jin H, Neubauer C, Voorhees RM, Petry S, Kelley AC, Ramakrishnan V. Insights into translational termination from the structure of RF2 bound to the ribosome. Science 2008;322(5903):953-6.Abstract
The termination of protein synthesis occurs through the specific recognition of a stop codon in the A site of the ribosome by a release factor (RF), which then catalyzes the hydrolysis of the nascent protein chain from the P-site transfer RNA. Here we present, at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms, the crystal structure of RF2 in complex with its cognate UGA stop codon in the 70S ribosome. The structure provides insight into how RF2 specifically recognizes the stop codon; it also suggests a model for the role of a universally conserved GGQ motif in the catalysis of peptide release.
Petry S, Weixlbaumer A, Ramakrishnan V. The termination of translation. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2008;18(1):70-7.Abstract
Recent results from cryoelectron microscopy, crystallography, and biochemical experiments have shed considerable light on the process by which protein synthesis is terminated when a stop codon is reached. However, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms will require higher-resolution structures of the various states involved.
Weixlbaumer A, Petry S, Dunham CM, Selmer M, Kelley AC, Ramakrishnan V. Crystal structure of the ribosome recycling factor bound to the ribosome. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2007;14(8):733-7.Abstract
In bacteria, disassembly of the ribosome at the end of translation is facilitated by an essential protein factor termed ribosome recycling factor (RRF), which works in concert with elongation factor G. Here we describe the crystal structure of the Thermus thermophilus RRF bound to a 70S ribosomal complex containing a stop codon in the A site, a transfer RNA anticodon stem-loop in the P site and tRNA(fMet) in the E site. The work demonstrates that structures of translation factors bound to 70S ribosomes can be determined at reasonably high resolution. Contrary to earlier reports, we did not observe any RRF-induced changes in bridges connecting the two subunits. This suggests that such changes are not a direct requirement for or consequence of RRF binding but possibly arise from the subsequent stabilization of a hybrid state of the ribosome.
Selmer M, Dunham CM, Murphy FV, Weixlbaumer A, Petry S, Kelley AC, Weir JR, Ramakrishnan V. Structure of the 70S ribosome complexed with mRNA and tRNA. Science 2006;313(5795):1935-42.Abstract
The crystal structure of the bacterial 70S ribosome refined to 2.8 angstrom resolution reveals atomic details of its interactions with messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). A metal ion stabilizes a kink in the mRNA that demarcates the boundary between A and P sites, which is potentially important to prevent slippage of mRNA. Metal ions also stabilize the intersubunit interface. The interactions of E-site tRNA with the 50S subunit have both similarities and differences compared to those in the archaeal ribosome. The structure also rationalizes much biochemical and genetic data on translation.
Petry S, Brodersen DE, Murphy FV, Dunham CM, Selmer M, Tarry MJ, Kelley AC, Ramakrishnan V. Crystal structures of the ribosome in complex with release factors RF1 and RF2 bound to a cognate stop codon. Cell 2005;123(7):1255-66.Abstract
During protein synthesis, translational release factors catalyze the release of the polypeptide chain when a stop codon on the mRNA reaches the A site of the ribosome. The detailed mechanism of this process is currently unknown. We present here the crystal structures of the ribosome from Thermus thermophilus with RF1 and RF2 bound to their cognate stop codons, at resolutions of 5.9 Angstrom and 6.7 Angstrom, respectively. The structures reveal details of interactions of the factors with the ribosome and mRNA, including elements previously implicated in decoding and peptide release. They also shed light on conformational changes both in the factors and in the ribosome during termination. Differences seen in the interaction of RF1 and RF2 with the L11 region of the ribosome allow us to rationalize previous biochemical data. Finally, this work demonstrates the feasibility of crystallizing ribosomes with bound factors at a defined state along the translational pathway.