Frymer, Paul, and Jacob M. Grumbach. “Labor Unions and White Racial Politics”. American Journal of Political Science 65.1 (2021): , 65, 1, 225-40. Web. Publisher's Version ajps12537_rev.pdf
Frymer, Paul. Building an American Empire: The Era of Territorial and Political Expansion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017. Web. Publisher's Version
Frymer, Paul. “"Rights Through Knowledge and Reason: Civil Rights Aspirations in the Progressive-Era Department of Labor”. The Progressives' Century: Political Reform, Constitutional Government, and the Modern American State. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. 316-38. Print. progressives.pdf
Beienburg, Sean, and Paul Frymer. “The People Against Themselves: Rethinking Popular Constitutionalism”. Law and Social Inquiry 41.1 (2016): , 41, 1, 242-266. Print.
Review Symposium: Teachers Unions and Public Education”. Perspectives on Politics 10.1 (2012): , 10, 1, 124-26. Print. moe_review.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “Whatever Became of the Raucous Caucus?”. The American Interest 81 (2012): , 8, 1, 35-43. Print. american_interest.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “Building an American Empire: Territorial Expansion in the Antebellum Era”. U. C. Irvine Law Review 13 (2011): , 1, 3, 913-954. Print. 1ucilr913.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “Afterword: Obama and the Representation of Captured Groups”. Uneasy Alliances: Race and Party Competition in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010. Web. Publisher's Version uneasy_alliances_afterword_copy.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “Labor and American Politics”. Perspectives on Politics 82 (2010): , 8, 2, 609-616. Print. labor_perspectives.pdf
Frymer, Paul. Black and Blue: African Americans, the Labor Movement, and the Decline of the Democratic Party. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. Web. Publisher's Version
Frymer, Paul. “Law and American Political Development”. Law and Social Inquiry 33.3 (2008): , 33, 3, 779-803. Print.
Frymer, Paul, and John D Skrentny. “The Rise of Instrumental Affirmative Action: Law and the New Significance of Race in America”. Connecticut Law Review 36 (2007): , 36, 677-723. Print. uconn_.pdf
Frymer, Paul, Dara Z Strolovitch, and Dorian T Warren. “New Orleans is Not the Exception: Re-Politicizing the Study of Racial Inequality”. Du Bois Review 31 (2006): , 3, 1, 37-57. Print. dbr.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “Racism Revised: Courts, Labor Law, and the Institutional Construction of Racial Animus”. American Political Science Review 99.3 (2005): , 99, 3, 373-387. Print.Abstract

How should we understand and explain individual acts of racism? Despite extensive debate about the broader place and importance of racism in America, there is surprisingly little theoretical or empirical analysis of what leads individuals to commit racist acts. In contrast to most political scientists who understand racism as an individual psychological attitude—–an irrational prejudice—–I argue that individual manifestations of racism are the result of a complex set of factors, and that latent psychology is less helpful to understanding them than are the maneuverings and behavior of strategic actors following rules and incentives provided by institutions. We need to examine the ways in which institutions encourage racist acts by motivating people to behave in a racist manner or behave in a manner that motivates others to do so. To further explore and compare institutional and individual-psychological approaches to understanding racism, I examine manifestations of racism in labor union elections. I analyze and contrast more than 150 cases in which the National Labor Relations Board and U.S. federal appellate courts formally responded to reported violations of racism in a union election. The principles of this approach can easily be applied to other contexts and suggests that racism in society is less intractable and innate than malleable and politically determined.

"Race, Labor, and the Twentieth Century American State"”. Politics and Society 32.4 (2004): , 32, 4, 475-509. Print. ps_32_.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “Acting When Elected Officials Won't: Federal Courts and Civil Rights Enforcement in U.S. Labor Unions, 1935-85”. American Political Science Review 97.3 (2003): , 97, 3, 483-499. Print. apsr_97.pdf
Frymer, Paul, and Albert Yoon. “Political Parties, Representation, and Federal Safeguards”. Northwestern University Law Review 96.3 (2002): , 96, 3, 977-1026. Print. northwestern_2002.pdf
Frymer, Paul. “"Up and At 'Em: Review of Nelson Lichtenstein's, State of the Union”. Forward (2002). Print. forward2002_.pdf