Mice engrafted with components of a human immune system have become widely-used models for studying aspects of human immunity and disease. However, a defined methodology to objectively measure and compare the quality of the human immune response in different models is lacking. Here, by taking advantage of the highly immunogenic live-attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine YFV-17D, we provide an in-depth comparison of immune responses in human vaccinees, conventional humanized mice, and second generation humanized mice. We demonstrate that selective expansion of human myeloid and natural killer cells promotes transcriptomic responses akin to those of human vaccinees. These enhanced transcriptomic profiles correlate with the development of an antigen-specific cellular and humoral response to YFV-17D. Altogether, our approach provides a robust scoring of the quality of the human immune response in humanized mice and highlights a rational path towards developing better pre-clinical models for studying the human immune response and disease.
Chronic delta hepatitis, caused by hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, affecting at least 20 million hepatitis B virus (HBV)–infected patients worldwide. HDV/HBV co- or superinfections are major drivers for hepatocarcinogenesis. Antiviral treatments exist only for HBV and can only suppress but not cure infection. Development of more effective therapies has been impeded by the scarcity of suitable small-animal models. We created a transgenic (tg) mouse model for HDV expressing the functional receptor for HBV and HDV, the human sodium taurocholate cotransporting peptide NTCP. Both HBV and HDV entered hepatocytes in these mice in a glycoprotein-dependent manner, but one or more postentry blocks prevented HBV replication. In contrast, HDV persistently infected hNTCP tg mice coexpressing the HBV envelope, consistent with HDV dependency on the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for packaging and spread. In immunocompromised mice lacking functional B, T, and natural killer cells, viremia lasted at least 80 days but resolved within 14 days in immunocompetent animals, demonstrating that lymphocytes are critical for controlling HDV infection. Although acute HDV infection did not cause overt liver damage in this model, cell-intrinsic and cellular innate immune responses were induced. We further demonstrated that single and dual treatment with myrcludex B and lonafarnib efficiently suppressed viremia but failed to cure HDV infection at the doses tested. This small-animal model with inheritable susceptibility to HDV opens opportunities for studying viral pathogenesis and immune responses and for testing novel HDV therapeutics.
Yellow fever (YF) was one of the most dangerous infectious diseases of the 18th and 19th centuries, resulting in mass casualties in Africa and the Americas. The etiologic agent is yellow fever virus (YFV), and its live-attenuated form, YFV-17D, remains one of the most potent vaccines ever developed. During the first half of the 20th century, vaccination combined with mosquito control eradicated YFV transmission in urban areas. However, the recent 2016–2018 outbreaks in areas with historically low or no YFV activity have raised serious concerns for an estimated 400–500 million unvaccinated people who now live in at-risk areas. Once a forgotten disease, we highlight here that YF still represents a very real threat to human health and economies. As many gaps remain in our understanding of how YFV interacts with the human host and causes disease, there is an urgent need to address these knowledge gaps and propel YFV research forward.
The limited host tropism of numerous viruses causing disease in humans remains incompletely understood. One example is Zika virus (ZIKV), an RNA virus that has reemerged in recent years. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV efficiently infects fibroblasts from humans, great apes, New and Old World monkeys, but not rodents. ZIKV infection in human—but not murine—cells impairs responses to agonists of the cGMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS/STING) signaling pathway, suggesting that viral mechanisms to evade antiviral defenses are less effective in rodent cells. Indeed, human, but not mouse, STING is subject to cleavage by proteases encoded by ZIKV, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus, but not that of yellow fever virus. The protease cleavage site, located between positions 78/79 of human STING, is only partially conserved in nonhuman primates and rodents, rendering these orthologs resistant to degradation. Genetic disruption of STING increases the susceptibility of mouse—but not human—cells to ZIKV. Accordingly, expression of only mouse, not human, STING in murine STING knockout cells rescues the ZIKV suppression phenotype. STING-deficient mice, however, did not exhibit increased susceptibility, suggesting that other redundant antiviral pathways control ZIKV infection in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that numerous RNA viruses evade cGAS/STING-dependent signaling and affirm the importance of this pathway in shaping the host range of ZIKV. Furthermore, our results explain—at least in part—the decreased permissivity of rodent cells to ZIKV, which could aid in the development of mice model with inheritable susceptibility to ZIKV and other flaviviruses.
Approximately 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur annually in both developing and industrialized countries. Most infections are self-limiting, but they can lead to chronic infections and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients, and death in pregnant women. The mechanisms of HEV replication remain incompletely understood due to scarcity of adequate experimental platforms. HEV undergoes asymmetric genome replication, but it produces an additional subgenomic (SG) RNA encoding the viral capsid and a viroporin in partially overlapping open reading frames. Using a novel transcomplementation system, we mapped the intragenomic subgenomic promoter regulating SG RNA synthesis. This cis-acting element is highly conserved across all eight HEV genotypes, and when the element is mutated, it abrogates particle assembly and release. Our work defines previously unappreciated viral regulatory elements and provides the first in-depth view of the intracellular genome dynamics of this emerging human pathogen.
Plasmodium infection begins with the bite of an anopheline mosquito, when sporozoites along with saliva are injected into a vertebrate host. The role of the host responses to mosquito saliva components in malaria remains unclear. We observed that antisera against Anopheles gambiae salivary glands partially protected mice from mosquito-borne Plasmodium infection. Specifically, antibodies to A. gambiae TRIO (AgTRIO), a mosquito salivary gland antigen, contributed to the protection. Mice administered AgTRIO antiserum showed lower Plasmodium liver burden and decreased parasitemia when exposed to infected mosquitoes. Active immunization with AgTRIO was also partially protective against Plasmodium berghei infection. A combination of AgTRIO antiserum and antibodies against Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein, a vaccine candidate, further decreased P. berghei infection. In humanized mice, AgTRIO antiserum afforded some protection against mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium falciparum. AgTRIO antiserum reduced the movement of sporozoites in the murine dermis. AgTRIO may serve as an arthropod-based target against Plasmodium to combat malaria.
Humanized mice, that is, animals engrafted with human tissues and/or expressing human genes, have been instrumental in improving our understanding of the pathogenesis and immunological processes that define some of the most challenging human-tropic viruses. In particular, mice engrafted with components of a human immune system (HIS) offer unprecedented opportunities for mechanistic studies of human immune responses to infection. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current panel of HIS mouse models available and cite recent examples of how such humanized animals have been used to study immune responses and pathogenesis elicited by human-tropic viruses. Finally, we will outline some of the challenges that lay ahead and strategies to improve and refine humanized mice with the goal of more accurately recapitulating human immune responses to viral infection.
Amino-acid coevolution can be referred to mutational compensatory patterns preserving the function of a protein. Viral envelope glycoproteins, which mediate entry of enveloped viruses into their host cells, are shaped by coevolution signals that confer to viruses the plasticity to evade neutralizing antibodies without altering viral entry mechanisms. The functions and structures of the two envelope glycoproteins of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), E1 and E2, are poorly described. Especially, how these two proteins mediate the HCV fusion process between the viral and the cell membrane remains elusive. Here, as a proof of concept, we aimed to take advantage of an original coevolution method recently developed to shed light on the HCV fusion mechanism. When first applied to the well-characterized Dengue Virus (DENV) envelope glycoproteins, coevolution analysis was able to predict important structural features and rearrangements of these viral protein complexes. When applied to HCV E1E2, computational coevolution analysis predicted that E1 and E2 refold interdependently during fusion through rearrangements of the E2 Back Layer (BL). Consistently, a soluble BL-derived polypeptide inhibited HCV infection of hepatoma cell lines, primary human hepatocytes and humanized liver mice. We showed that this polypeptide specifically inhibited HCV fusogenic rearrangements, hence supporting the critical role of this domain during HCV fusion. By combining coevolution analysis and in vitro assays, we also uncovered functionally-significant coevolving signals between E1 and E2 BL/Stem regions that govern HCV fusion, demonstrating the accuracy of our coevolution predictions. Altogether, our work shed light on important structural features of the HCV fusion mechanism and contributes to advance our functional understanding of this process. This study also provides an important proof of concept that coevolution can be employed to explore viral protein mediated-processes, and can guide the development of innovative translational strategies against challenging human-tropic viruses.
At least 20 million hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur annually, with >3 million symptomatic cases and ∼60,000 fatalities. Hepatitis E is generally self-limiting, with a case fatality rate of 0.5-3% in young adults. However, it can cause up to 30% mortality in pregnant women in the third trimester and can become chronic in immunocompromised individuals, such as those receiving organ transplants or chemotherapy and individuals with HIV infection. HEV is transmitted primarily via the faecal-oral route and was previously thought to be a public health concern only in developing countries. It is now also being frequently reported in industrialized countries, where it is transmitted zoonotically or through organ transplantation or blood transfusions. Although a vaccine for HEV has been developed, it is only licensed in China. Additionally, no effective, non-teratogenic and specific treatments against HEV infections are currently available. Although progress has been made in characterizing HEV biology, the scarcity of adequate experimental platforms has hampered further research. In this Review, we focus on providing an update on the HEV life cycle. We will further discuss existing cell culture and animal models and highlight platforms that have proven to be useful and/or are emerging for studying other hepatotropic (viral) pathogens.
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live-attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I (IFN-α/β) and type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action on viral infection However, it remains unclear how type III IFN (IFN-λ) integrates into this anti-viral system. Here, we report that while wild-type (WT) and IFN-λ receptor knock-out (λR -/-) mice were largely resistant to YFV-17D, deficiency in type I IFN-signaling resulted in robust infection. Although IFN-α/β receptor knock-out (α/βR -/-) mice survived the infection, mice with a combined deficiency in both type I and III IFN-signaling were hyper-susceptible to YFV-17D and succumbed to the infection. Mortality was associated with viral neuroinvasion and increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). α/βR -/- λR -/- mice also exhibited distinct changes in the frequencies of multiple immune cell lineages, impaired T-cell activation and severe perturbation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine balance. Taken together, our data highlight that type III IFN has critical immunomodulatory and neuroprotective functions that prevent viral neuroinvasion during active YFV-17D replication. Type III IFN thus likely represents a safeguard mechanism crucial for controlling YFV-17D infection and contributing to shaping vaccine immunogenicity.
Hepatitis B virus causes chronic infections in 250 million people worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus carriers are at risk of developing fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A prophylactic vaccine exists and currently available antivirals can suppress but rarely cure chronic infections. The study of hepatitis B virus and development of curative antivirals are hampered by a scarcity of models that mimic infection in a physiologically relevant, cellular context. Here, we show that cell-culture and patient-derived hepatitis B virus can establish persistent infection for over 30 days in a self-assembling, primary hepatocyte co-culture system. Importantly, infection can be established without antiviral immune suppression, and susceptibility is not donor dependent. The platform is scalable to microwell formats, and we provide proof-of-concept for its use in testing entry inhibitors and antiviral compounds.The lack of models that mimic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a physiologically relevant context has hampered drug development. Here, Winer et al. establish a self-assembling, primary hepatocyte co-culture system that can be infected with patient-derived HBV without further modifications.
The global control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a great burden, due to the high prices and potential drug resistance of the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) as well as the risk of reinfection in DAA-cured patients. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine for HCV is of great importance. We previously reported a single recombinant soluble E2 (sE2) vaccine produced in insect cells was able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and prevent HCV infection in mice. Here the sE2 vaccine was evaluated in non-human primates.
Rhesus macaques were immunized with sE2 vaccine in combination with different adjuvants. Vaccine-induced NAbs in antisera were tested for neutralization activities against a panel of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), while T-cell responses were evaluated in splenocytes, PBMC and hepatic lymphocytes.
sE2 is able to elicit NAbs against HCVcc harboring structural proteins from multiple HCV genotypes in rhesus macaques. Moreover, sE2-immunized macaques developed systemic and intra-hepatic memory T cells specific for E2. A significant correlation between the sE2-specific IgG titers and neutralization spectrum was observed, highlighting the essential role of sE2 immunogenicity on achieving broad NAbs.
sE2 is a promising HCV vaccine candidate that warrants further pre-clinical and clinical development.
Patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and receiving long-term treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues are at risk of selecting HBV strains with complex mutational patterns. We herein report two cases of HBV-infected patients with insufficient viral suppression, despite dual antiviral therapy with entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF). One patient died from aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Serum samples from the two patients at different time points were analyzed using ultra-deep pyrosequencing analysis. HBV mutations were identified and transiently transfected into hepatoma cells in vitro using replication-competent HBV vectors, and functionally analyzed. We assessed replication efficacy, resistance to antivirals and potential impact on HBV secretion (viral particles, exosomes).
Sequencing analyses revealed the selection of the rtS78T HBV polymerase mutation in both cases that simultaneously creates a premature stop codon at sC69 and thereby deletes almost the entire small HBV surface protein. One of the patients had an additional 261 bp deletion in the preS1/S2 region. Functional analyses of the mutations in vitro revealed that the rtS78T/sC69∗ mutation, but not the preS1/S2 deletion, significantly enhanced viral replication and conferred reduced susceptibility to ETV and TDF. The sC69∗ mutation caused truncation of HBs protein, leading to impaired detection by commercial HBsAg assay, without causing intracellular HBsAg retention or affecting HBV secretion.
The rtS78T/sC69∗ HBV mutation, associated with enhanced replication and insufficient response to antiviral treatment, may favor long-term persistence of these isolates. In addition to the increased production of HBV transcripts and the sustained secretion of viral particles in the absence of antigenic domains of S protein, this HBV mutation may predispose patients to carcinogenic effects.