Casadevall, Arturo, and Thomas Shenk. “The mBio American Academy of Microbiology Submission Track in 2017.”. MBio 81 (2017). Web.
Levin, Jeremy M, et al.US immigration order strikes against biotech.”. Nat Biotechnol 35.3 (2017): , 35, 3, 204-206. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. Infect Immun 84.9 (2016): , 84, 9, 2407-8. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60.9 (2016): , 60, 9, 5109-10. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. mSphere 14 (2016). Web.Abstract
Many scientists attempt to publish their work in a journal with the highest possible journal impact factor (IF). Despite widespread condemnation of the use of journal IFs to assess the significance of published work, these numbers continue to be widely misused in publication, hiring, funding, and promotion decisions (1, 2).
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. Clin Microbiol Rev 29.4 (2016): , 29, 4, i-ii. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. mSystems 14 (2016). Web.Abstract
Many scientists attempt to publish their work in a journal with the highest possible journal impact factor (IF). Despite widespread condemnation of the use of journal IFs to assess the significance of published work, these numbers continue to be widely misused in publication, hiring, funding, and promotion decisions (1, 2).
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. J Clin Microbiol 54.9 (2016): , 54, 9, 2216-7. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. Appl Environ Microbiol 82.18 (2016): , 82, 18, 5479-80. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 80.3 (2016): , 80, 3, i-ii. Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.”. MBio 74 (2016). Web.
Imperiale, Michael J, Thomas Shenk, and Stefano Bertuzzi. “mSphereDirect: Author-Initiated Peer Review of Manuscripts.”. mSphere 16 (2016). Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.Dual-Use Research of Concern (DURC) Review at American Society for Microbiology Journals.”. MBio 64 (2015): , 6, 4, e01236. Web.
Purdy, John G, Thomas Shenk, and Joshua D Rabinowitz. “Fatty acid elongase 7 catalyzes lipidome remodeling essential for human cytomegalovirus replication.”. Cell Rep 10.8 (2015): , 10, 8, 1375-85. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rewires host-cell metabolism, upregulating flux from glucose into acetyl-CoA to feed fatty acid metabolism, with saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLFCAs) required for production of infectious virion progeny. The human genome encodes seven elongase enzymes (ELOVL) that extend long-chain fatty acids into VLCFA. Here, we identify ELOVL7 as pivotal for HCMV infection. HCMV induces ELOVL7 by more than 150-fold. This induction is dependent on mTOR and SREBP-1. ELOVL7 knockdown or mTOR inhibition impairs HCMV-induced fatty acid elongation, HCMV particle release, and infectivity per particle. ELOVL7 overexpression enhances HCMV replication. During HCMV infection, mTOR activity is maintained by the viral protein pUL38. Expression of pUL38 is sufficient to induce ELOVL7, and pUL38-deficient virus is partially defective in ELOVL7 induction and fatty acid elongation. Thus, through its ability to modulate mTOR and SREBP-1, HCMV induces ELOVL7 to synthesize the saturated VLCFA required for efficient virus replication.
Oberstein, Adam, et al.Human cytomegalovirus pUL97 kinase induces global changes in the infected cell phosphoproteome.”. Proteomics 15.12 (2015): , 15, 12, 2006-22. Web.Abstract
Replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is regulated in part by cellular kinases and the single viral Ser/Thr kinase, pUL97. The virus-coded kinase augments the replication of HCMV by enabling nuclear egress and altering cell cycle progression. These roles are accomplished through direct phosphorylation of nuclear lamins and the retinoblastoma protein, respectively. In an effort to identify additional pUL97 substrates, we analyzed the phosphoproteome of SILAC-labeled human fibroblasts during infection with either wild-type HCMV or a pUL97 kinase-dead mutant virus. Phosphopeptides were enriched over a titanium dioxide matrix and analyzed by high-resolution MS. We identified 157 unambiguous phosphosites from 106 cellular and 17 viral proteins whose phosphorylation required UL97. Analysis of peptides containing these sites allowed the identification of several candidate pUL97 phosphorylation motifs, including a completely novel phosphorylation motif, LxSP. Substrates harboring the LxSP motif were enriched in nucleocytoplasmic transport functions, including a number of components of the nuclear pore complex. These results extend the known functions of pUL97 and suggest that modulation of nuclear pore function may be important during HCMV replication.
Ziehr, Benjamin, et al.Human cytomegalovirus TRS1 protein associates with the 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap and facilitates translation.”. Proteomics 15.12 (2015): , 15, 12, 1983-94. Web.Abstract
Viruses rely on the host translation machinery for the synthesis of viral proteins. Human cells have evolved sensors that recognize viral RNAs and inhibit mRNA translation in order to limit virus replication. Understanding how viruses manipulate the host translation machinery to gain access to ribosomes and disable the antiviral response is therefore a critical aspect of the host/pathogen interface. In this study, we used a proteomics approach to identify human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins that might contribute to viral mRNA translation. The HCMV TRS1 protein (pTRS1) associated with the 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap, increased the total level of protein synthesis, and colocalized with mRNAs undergoing translation initiation during infection. pTRS1 stimulated translation of a nonviral reporter gene and increased the translation of a reporter containing an HCMV 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) to a greater extent. The preferential effect of pTRS1 on translation of an mRNA containing a viral 5'UTR required the pTRS1 RNA and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-binding domains, and was likely the result of PKR inhibition. However, pTRS1 also stimulated the total level of protein synthesis and translation directed by an HCMV 5'UTR in cells lacking PKR. Thus our results demonstrate that pTRS1 stimulates translation through both PKR-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms.
Casadevall, Arturo, and Thomas Shenk. “The Justification for the Academy Track in mBio.”. MBio 64 (2015). Web.
Dermody, Terence S, et al.The decision to publish an avian H7N1 influenza virus gain-of-function experiment.”. MBio 55 (2014): , 5, 5, e01985-14. Web.
Shenk, Thomas, and James C Alwine. “Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.”. Annu Rev Virol 11 (2014): , 1, 1, 355-74. Web.Abstract
Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.
Sharon-Friling, Ronit, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus pUL37x1-induced calcium flux activates PKCα, inducing altered cell shape and accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111.12 (2014): , 111, 12, E1140-8. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein pUL37x1 induces the release of Ca(2+) stores from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. This release causes reorganization of the cellular actin cytoskeleton with concomitant cell rounding. Here we demonstrate that pUL37x1 activates Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Both PKCα and Rho-associated protein kinases are required for actin reorganization and cell rounding; however, only PKCα is required for the efficient production of virus progeny, arguing that HCMV depends on the kinase for a second function. PKCα activation is also needed for the production of large (1-5 μm) cytoplasmic vesicles late after infection. The production of these vesicles is blocked by inhibition of fatty acid or phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate biosynthesis, and the failure to produce vesicles is correlated with substantially reduced production of enveloped virus capsids. These results connect earlier work identifying a requirement for lipid synthesis with specific morphological changes, and support the argument that the PKCα-induced large vesicles are either required for the efficient production of mature virus particles or serve as a marker for the process.
Casadevall, Arturo, and Thomas Shenk. “mBio addresses the pause in gain-of-function (GOF) experiments involving pathogens with pandemic potential (PPP).”. MBio 56 (2014). Web.
Casadevall, Arturo, et al.On the need for a national board to assess dual use research of concern.”. J Virol 88.12 (2014): , 88, 12, 6535-7. Web.
O'Connor, Christine M, et al.Quantitative proteomic discovery of dynamic epigenome changes that control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.”. Mol Cell Proteomics 13.9 (2014): , 13, 9, 2399-410. Web.Abstract
This work represents the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of global histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) from a virus infection, namely human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We used a nanoLC-MS/MS platform to identify and quantify the dynamic histone H3 and H4 PTMs expressed during HCMV replication in primary fibroblasts. Specifically, we examined the changes in histone PTMs over a 96 h time course to sample the immediate early (IE), early (E), and late (L) stages of viral infection. Several changes in histone H3 and H4 PTMs were observed, including a marked increase in H3K79me2 and H3K27me3K36me2, and a decrease in H4K16ac, highlighting likely epigenetic strategies of transcriptional activation and silencing during HCMV lytic infection. Heavy methyl-SILAC (hm-SILAC) was used to further confirm the histone methylation flux (especially for H3K79) during HCMV infection. We evaluated DOT1L (the H3K79 methyltransferase) mRNA levels in mock and HCMV-infected cells over a 96 h time course, and observed a significant increase in this methyltransferase as early as 24 hpi showing that viral infection up-regulates DOT1L expression, which drives H3K79me2. We then used shRNA to create a DOT1L knockdown cell population, and found that HCMV infection of the knockdown cells resulted in a 10-fold growth defect when compared with infected control cells not subjected to knockdown. This work documents multiple histone PTMs that occur in response to HCMV infection of fibroblasts, and provides a framework for evaluation of the role of epigenetic modifications in the virus-host interaction.
Dermody, Terence S, Rozanne M Sandri-Goldin, and Thomas Shenk. “Sequence changes associated with respiratory transmission of H7N1 influenza virus in mammals.”. J Virol 88.12 (2014): , 88, 12, 6533-4. Web.
Hwang, Jesse, et al.Estrogen-related receptor α is required for efficient human cytomegalovirus replication.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111.52 (2014): , 111, 52, E5706-15. Web.Abstract
An shRNA-mediated screen of the 48 human nuclear receptor genes identified multiple candidates likely to influence the production of human cytomegalovirus in cultured human fibroblasts, including the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor. The 50-kDa receptor and a 76-kDa variant were induced posttranscriptionally following infection. Genetic and pharmacological suppression of the receptor reduced viral RNA, protein, and DNA accumulation, as well as the yield of infectious progeny. In addition, RNAs encoding multiple metabolic enzymes, including enzymes sponsoring glycolysis (enolase 1, triosephosphate isomerase 1, and hexokinase 2), were reduced when the function of ERRα was inhibited in infected cells. Consistent with the effect on RNAs, a substantial number of metabolites, which are normally induced by infection, were either not increased or were increased to a reduced extent in the absence of normal ERRα activity. We conclude that ERRα is needed for the efficient production of cytomegalovirus progeny, and we propose that the nuclear receptor contributes importantly to the induction of a metabolic environment that supports optimal cytomegalovirus replication.
Mathias, Rommel A, et al.Sirtuin 4 is a lipoamidase regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity.”. Cell 159.7 (2014): , 159, 7, 1615-25. Web.Abstract
Sirtuins (SIRTs) are critical enzymes that govern genome regulation, metabolism, and aging. Despite conserved deacetylase domains, mitochondrial SIRT4 and SIRT5 have little to no deacetylase activity, and a robust catalytic activity for SIRT4 has been elusive. Here, we establish SIRT4 as a cellular lipoamidase that regulates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). Importantly, SIRT4 catalytic efficiency for lipoyl- and biotinyl-lysine modifications is superior to its deacetylation activity. PDH, which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, has been known to be primarily regulated by phosphorylation of its E1 component. We determine that SIRT4 enzymatically hydrolyzes the lipoamide cofactors from the E2 component dihydrolipoyllysine acetyltransferase (DLAT), diminishing PDH activity. We demonstrate SIRT4-mediated regulation of DLAT lipoyl levels and PDH activity in cells and in vivo, in mouse liver. Furthermore, metabolic flux switching via glutamine stimulation induces SIRT4 lipoamidase activity to inhibit PDH, highlighting SIRT4 as a guardian of cellular metabolism.
Koyuncu, Emre, et al.Sirtuins are evolutionarily conserved viral restriction factors.”. MBio 56 (2014). Web.Abstract
UNLABELLED: The seven human sirtuins are a family of ubiquitously expressed and evolutionarily conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacylases/mono-ADP ribosyltransferases that regulate numerous cellular and organismal functions, including metabolism, cell cycle, and longevity. Here, we report the discovery that all seven sirtuins have broad-range antiviral properties. We demonstrate that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of individual sirtuins and drug-mediated inhibition of sirtuin enzymatic activity increase the production of virus progeny in infected human cells. This impact on virus growth is observed for both DNA and RNA viruses. Importantly, sirtuin-activating drugs inhibit the replication of diverse viruses, as we demonstrate for human cytomegalovirus, a slowly replicating DNA virus, and influenza A (H1N1) virus, an RNA virus that multiplies rapidly. Furthermore, sirtuin defense functions are evolutionarily conserved, since CobB, the sirtuin homologue in Escherichia coli, protects against bacteriophages. Altogether, our findings establish sirtuins as broad-spectrum and evolutionarily conserved components of the immune defense system, providing a framework for elucidating a new set of host cell defense mechanisms and developing sirtuin modulators with antiviral activity. IMPORTANCE: We live in a sea of viruses, some of which are human pathogens. These pathogenic viruses exhibit numerous differences: DNA or RNA genomes, enveloped or naked virions, nuclear or cytoplasmic replication, diverse disease symptoms, etc. Most antiviral drugs target specific viral proteins. Consequently, they often work for only one virus, and their efficacy can be compromised by the rapid evolution of resistant variants. There is a need for the identification of host proteins with broad-spectrum antiviral functions, which provide effective targets for therapeutic treatments that limit the evolution of viral resistance. Here, we report that sirtuins present such an opportunity for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral treatments, since our findings highlight these enzymes as ancient defense factors that protect against a variety of viral pathogens.
Grady, Sarah L, et al.Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 depletion produces a metabolic state conducive to herpes simplex virus 1 infection.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110.51 (2013): , 110, 51, E5006-15. Web.Abstract
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers specific metabolic changes in its host cell. To explore the interactions between cellular metabolism and HSV-1 infection, we performed an siRNA screen of cellular metabolic genes, measuring their effect on viral replication. The screen identified multiple enzymes predicted to influence HSV-1 replication, including argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (AS1), which consumes aspartate as part of de novo arginine synthesis. Knockdown of AS1 robustly enhanced viral genome replication and the production of infectious virus. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the metabolic phenotype induced by knockdown of AS1 in human fibroblasts mimicked multiple aspects of the metabolic program observed during HSV-1 infection, including an increase in multiple nucleotides and their precursors. Together with the observation that AS1 protein and mRNA levels decrease during wild-type infection, this work suggests that reduced AS1 activity is partially responsible for the metabolic program induced by infection.
Koyuncu, Emre, et al.Saturated very long chain fatty acids are required for the production of infectious human cytomegalovirus progeny.”. PLoS Pathog 95 (2013): , 9, 5, e1003333. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus hijacks host cell metabolism, increasing the flux of carbon from glucose to malonyl-CoA, the committed precursor to fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocks the production of progeny virus. To probe further the role of fatty acid metabolism during infection, we performed an siRNA screen to identify host cell metabolic enzymes needed for the production of infectious cytomegalovirus progeny. The screen predicted that multiple long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid elongases are needed during infection, and the levels of RNAs encoding several of these enzymes were upregulated by the virus. Roles for acyl-CoA synthetases and elongases during infection were confirmed by using small molecule antagonists. Consistent with a role for these enzymes, mass spectrometry-based fatty acid analysis with ¹³C-labeling revealed that malonyl-CoA is consumed by elongases to produce very long chain fatty acids, generating an approximately 8-fold increase in C26-C34 fatty acid tails in infected cells. The virion envelope was yet further enriched in C26-C34 saturated fatty acids, and elongase inhibitors caused the production of virions with lower levels of these fatty acids and markedly reduced infectivity. These results reveal a dependence of cytomegalovirus on very long chain fatty acid metabolism.
Grady, Sarah L, et al.Herpes simplex virus 1 infection activates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and triggers the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.”. J Virol 86.15 (2012): , 86, 15, 8259-68. Web.Abstract
Herpes simplex virus 1 infection triggers multiple changes in the metabolism of host cells, including a dramatic decrease in the levels of NAD(+). In addition to its role as a cofactor in reduction-oxidation reactions, NAD(+) is required for certain posttranslational modifications. Members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes are major consumers of NAD(+), which they utilize to form poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains on protein substrates in response to DNA damage. PAR chains can subsequently be removed by the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). We report here that the HSV-1 infection-induced drop in NAD(+) levels required viral DNA replication, was associated with an increase in protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), and was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1/PARP-2 (PARP-1/2). Neither virus yield nor the cellular metabolic reprogramming observed during HSV-1 infection was altered by the rescue or further depletion of NAD(+) levels. Expression of the viral protein ICP0, which possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, was both necessary and sufficient for the degradation of the 111-kDa PARG isoform. This work demonstrates that HSV-1 infection results in changes to NAD(+) metabolism by PARP-1/2 and PARG, and as PAR chain accumulation can induce caspase-independent apoptosis, we speculate that the decrease in PARG levels enhances the auto-PARylation-mediated inhibition of PARP, thereby avoiding premature death of the infected cell.
Terry, Laura J, et al.Human kinome profiling identifies a requirement for AMP-activated protein kinase during human cytomegalovirus infection.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109.8 (2012): , 109, 8, 3071-6. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) modulates numerous cellular signaling pathways. Alterations in signaling are evident from the broad changes in cellular phosphorylation that occur during HCMV infection and from the altered activity of multiple kinases. Here we report a comprehensive RNAi screen, which predicts that 106 cellular kinases influence growth of the virus, most of which were not previously linked to HCMV replication. Multiple elements of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway scored in the screen. As a regulator of carbon and nucleotide metabolism, AMPK is poised to activate many of the metabolic pathways induced by HCMV infection. An AMPK inhibitor, compound C, blocked a substantial portion of HCMV-induced metabolic changes, inhibited the accumulation of all HCMV proteins tested, and markedly reduced the production of infectious progeny. We propose that HCMV requires AMPK or related activity for viral replication and reprogramming of cellular metabolism.
Gudleski-O'Regan, Nicole, et al.Increased expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 during human cytomegalovirus infection reduces virion cholesterol and infectivity.”. Cell Host Microbe 12.1 (2012): , 12, 1, 86-96. Web.Abstract
In response to virus infection, cells can alter protein expression to modify cellular functions and limit viral replication. To examine host protein expression during infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), an enveloped DNA virus, we performed a semiquantitative, temporal analysis of the cell surface proteome in infected fibroblasts. We determined that resident low density lipoprotein related receptor 1 (LRP1), a plasma membrane receptor that regulates lipid metabolism, is elevated early after HCMV infection, resulting in decreased intracellular cholesterol. siRNA knockdown or antibody-mediated inhibition of LRP1 increased intracellular cholesterol and concomitantly increased the infectious virus yield. Virions produced under these conditions contained elevated cholesterol, resulting in increased infectivity. Depleting cholesterol from virions reduced their infectivity by blocking fusion of the virion envelope with the cell membrane. Thus, LRP1 restricts HCMV infectivity by controlling the availability of cholesterol for the virion envelope, and increased LRP1 expression is likely a defense response to infection.
O'Connor, Christine M, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus pUL78 G protein-coupled receptor homologue is required for timely cell entry in epithelial cells but not fibroblasts.”. J Virol 86.21 (2012): , 86, 21, 11425-33. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes four putative G protein-coupled receptors, including pUL78, whose rodent orthologues are known to be important for replication and spread in their hosts. To investigate the mechanism by which pUL78 contributes to viral replication and pathogenesis, we generated a derivative of the TB40/E clinical isolate of HCMV that is unable to express the receptor. Consistent with previous findings using laboratory strains of the virus, the mutant replicated normally in fibroblasts. Although laboratory strains are restricted to growth in fibroblasts, clinical isolates grow in many cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells, in which the pUL78-deficient TB40/E derivative exhibited a growth defect. Infection with the mutant virus resulted in a significant decrease in viral RNA and protein expression. Although there was no difference in binding of the virus to the cell, we detected a delay in the entry and subsequent delivery of virion DNA and protein to the nuclei of epithelial cells following infection with the UL78 mutant virus. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pUL78 supports infection at a point after binding but before entry in epithelial cells, a cell type important for in vivo viral replication and spread.
Vastag, Livia, et al.Divergent effects of human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus-1 on cellular metabolism.”. PLoS Pathog 77 (2011): , 7, 7, e1002124. Web.Abstract
Viruses rely on the metabolic network of the host cell to provide energy and macromolecular precursors to fuel viral replication. Here we used mass spectrometry to examine the impact of two related herpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), on the metabolism of fibroblast and epithelial host cells. Each virus triggered strong metabolic changes that were conserved across different host cell types. The metabolic effects of the two viruses were, however, largely distinct. HCMV but not HSV-1 increased glycolytic flux. HCMV profoundly increased TCA compound levels and flow of two carbon units required for TCA cycle turning and fatty acid synthesis. HSV-1 increased anapleurotic influx to the TCA cycle through pyruvate carboxylase, feeding pyrimidine biosynthesis. Thus, these two related herpesviruses drive diverse host cells to execute distinct, virus-specific metabolic programs. Current drugs target nucleotide metabolism for treatment of both viruses. Although our results confirm that this is a robust target for HSV-1, therapeutic interventions at other points in metabolism might prove more effective for treatment of HCMV.
O'Connor, Christine M, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus pUS27 G protein-coupled receptor homologue is required for efficient spread by the extracellular route but not for direct cell-to-cell spread.”. J Virol 85.8 (2011): , 85, 8, 3700-7. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes multiple G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) homologues, including pUS27, pUS28, pUL33, and pUL78. To explore the function of pUS27, we constructed pUS27-deficient derivates of two clinical isolates of HCMV. BFX-GFPstopUS27 is a FIX variant with a single base pair change in the US27 open reading frame, generating a stop codon that ablates accumulation of the GPCR homologue, and TB40/E-mCherrydlUS27 lacks the entire US27 coding region. BFX-GFPstopUS27 generated 10-fold less extracellular progeny in fibroblasts, and TB40/E-mCherrydlUS27 exhibited a similar defect in endothelial cells. The pUS27-deficient FIX derivative produced normal quantities of viral DNA and viral proteins tested, and a late virion protein was appropriately localized to the cytoplasmic assembly zone. After infection at a low multiplicity with wild-type FIX virus, neutralizing antibody reduced the accumulation of intracellular viral DNA and intracellular virions, as would be expected if the virus is limited to direct cell-to-cell spread by neutralization of extracellular virus. In contrast, the antibody had little effect on the spread of the BFX-GFPstopUS27 virus. Further, after infection at a low multiplicity, the pUS27-deficient TB40/E virus exhibited a growth defect in endothelial cells, where the clinical isolate normally generates extracellular virus, but the TB40/E derivative exhibited little defect in epithelial cells, where the wild-type virus does not produce extracellular virus. Thus, mutants lacking pUS27 rely primarily on direct cell-to-cell spread, and we conclude that the viral GCPR homologue acts at a late stage of the HCMV replication cycle to support spread of virus by the extracellular route.
Liu, Sean TH, et al.Synaptic vesicle-like lipidome of human cytomegalovirus virions reveals a role for SNARE machinery in virion egress.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108.31 (2011): , 108, 31, 12869-74. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus induces and requires fatty acid synthesis. This suggests an essential role for lipidome remodeling in viral replication. We used mass spectrometry to quantify glycerophospholipids in mock-infected and virus-infected fibroblasts, as well as in virions. Although the lipid composition of mock-infected and virus-infected fibroblasts was similar, virions were markedly different. The virion envelope contained twofold more phosphatidylethanolamines and threefold less phosphatidylserines than the host cell. This indicates that the virus buds from a membrane with a different lipid composition from the host cell as a whole. Compared with published datasets, the virion envelope showed the greatest similarity to the synaptic vesicle lipidome. Synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a component of the complex that mediates exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons; and its homolog, SNAP-23, functions in exocytosis in many other cell types. Infection induced the relocation of SNAP-23 to the cytoplasmic viral assembly zone, and knockdown of SNAP-23 inhibited the production of virus. We propose that cytomegalovirus capsids acquire their envelope by budding into vesicles with a lipid composition similar to that of synaptic vesicles, which subsequently fuse with the plasma membrane to release virions from the cell.
Aoyagi, Mariko, Miguel Gaspar, and Thomas E Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus UL69 protein facilitates translation by associating with the mRNA cap-binding complex and excluding 4EBP1.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107.6 (2010): , 107, 6, 2640-5. Web.Abstract
4EBP1 is phosphorylated by the mTORC1 kinase. When mTORC1 activity is inhibited, hypophosphorylated 4EBP1 binds and sequesters eIF4E, a component of the mRNA cap-binding complex, and blocks translation. As a consequence, mTORC1 activity is needed to maintain active translation. The human cytomegalovirus pUL38 protein preserves mTORC1 activity, keeping most of the E4BP1 in the infected cell in a hyperphosphorylated, inactive state. Here we report that a second viral protein, pUL69, also antagonizes the activity of 4EBP1, but by a separate mechanism. pUL69 interacts directly with eIF4A1, an element of the cap-binding complex, and the poly(A)-binding protein, which binds to the complex. When pUL69 accumulates during infection with wild-type virus, 4EBP1 is excluded from the complex. However, 4EBP1 is present in the cap-binding complex after infection with a pUL69-deficient virus, coincident with reduced accumulation of several late virus-coded proteins. We propose that pUL69 supports translation in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells by excluding hypophosphorylated 4EBP1 from the cap-binding complex.
Moorman, Nathaniel J, and Thomas Shenk. “Rapamycin-resistant mTORC1 kinase activity is required for herpesvirus replication.”. J Virol 84.10 (2010): , 84, 10, 5260-9. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been shown to activate the mTORC1 signaling pathway. However, the phosphorylation of mTORC1 targets is differentially sensitive to the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, and the drug inhibits HCMV replication to a modest extent. Using Torin1, a newly developed inhibitor that targets the catalytic site of mTOR kinase, we show that HCMV replication requires both rapamycin-sensitive and rapamycin-resistant mTOR activity. The treatment of infected cells with Torin1 inhibits the phosphorylation of rapamycin-sensitive and rapamycin-resistant mTOR targets and markedly blocks the production of virus progeny. The blockade of mTOR signaling with Torin1, but not rapamycin, disrupts the assembly of the eIF4F complex and increases the association of the translational repressor 4EBP1 to the 7-methylguanosine cap-binding complex. Torin1 does not affect HCMV entry and only modestly reduces the accumulation of the immediate-early and early viral proteins that were tested despite the disruption of the eIF4F complex. In contrast, Torin1 significantly decreases the accumulation of viral DNA and the pUL99 viral late protein. Similar mTOR signaling events were observed during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, and we utilized murine fibroblasts containing several different mutations to dissect the mechanism by which Torin1 inhibits MCMV replication. This approach demonstrated that mTORC2 and the Akt1 and Akt2 kinases are not required for the Torin1-mediated inhibition of cytomegalovirus replication. The inhibition of MCMV replication by Torin1 was rescued in cells lacking 4EBP1, demonstrating that the inactivation of 4EBP1 by mTORC1 is critical for cytomegalovirus replication. Finally, we show that Torin1 inhibits the replication of representative members of the alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesvirus families, demonstrating the potential of mTOR kinase inhibitors as broad-spectrum antiviral agents.
Moorman, Nathaniel J, et al.A targeted spatial-temporal proteomics approach implicates multiple cellular trafficking pathways in human cytomegalovirus virion maturation.”. Mol Cell Proteomics 95 (2010): , 9, 5, 851-60. Web.Abstract
The assembly of infectious virus particles is a complex event. For human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) this process requires the coordinated expression and localization of at least 60 viral proteins that comprise the infectious virion. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling this process, we identified protein binding partners for two viral proteins, pUL99 (also termed pp28) and pUL32 (pp150), which are essential for HCMV virion assembly. We utilized HCMV strains expressing pUL99 or pUL32 carboxyl-terminal green fluorescent protein fusion proteins from their native location in the HCMV genome. Based on the presence of ubiquitin in the pUL99 immunoisolation, we discovered that this viral protein colocalizes with components of the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway during the initial stages of virion assembly. We identified the nucleocapsid and a large number of tegument proteins as pUL32 binding partners, suggesting that events controlling trafficking of this viral protein in the cytoplasm regulate nucleocapsid/tegument maturation. The finding that pUL32, but not pUL99, associates with clathrin led to the discovery that the two viral proteins traffic via distinct pathways during the early stages of virion assembly. Additional investigation revealed that the majority of the major viral glycoprotein gB initially resides in a third compartment. Analysis of the trafficking of these three viral proteins throughout a time course of virion assembly allowed us to visualize their merger into a single large cytoplasmic structure during the late stages of viral assembly. We propose a model of HCMV virion maturation in which multiple components of the virion traffic independently of one another before merging.
Hargett, Danna, and Thomas E Shenk. “Experimental human cytomegalovirus latency in CD14+ monocytes.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107.46 (2010): , 107, 46, 20039-44. Web.Abstract
CD14(+) monocytes are a reservoir for latent human cytomegalovirus, and virus replication is reactivated during their differentiation to macrophages or dendritic cells. It has not been clear whether the virus can establish latency upon direct infection of monocytes or whether it must first become quiescent in a progenitor cell that subsequently differentiates to generate a monocyte. We report that infection of primary human monocytes with a clinical strain of human cytomegalovirus exhibits the hallmarks of latency. We established conditions for culturing monocytes that prevent differentiation for at least 25 d, as evidenced by cell surface marker expression. Infection of these monocytes with the FIX clinical strain resulted in transient accumulation of many viral lytic RNAs and sustained expression of four previously described latency-associated transcripts. The amount of viral DNA remained constant after infection, and cell surface and total HLA-DR proteins were substantially reduced on a continuing basis after infection. When treated with cytokine mixtures that stimulate differentiation to a macrophage or dendritic cell phenotype, infected monocytes reactivated virus replication and produced infectious progeny. Treatment of infected monocytes with IL-6 alone also was sufficient for reactivation, and the particles produced after exposure to this cytokine were about fivefold more infectious than virions produced by other treatments. We propose that in vivo microenvironments influence not only the efficiency of reactivation but also the infectivity of the virions produced from latently infected monocytes.
Cristea, Ileana M, et al.Human cytomegalovirus pUL83 stimulates activity of the viral immediate-early promoter through its interaction with the cellular IFI16 protein.”. J Virol 84.15 (2010): , 84, 15, 7803-14. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) virion protein pUL83 (also termed pp65) inhibits the expression of interferon-inducible cellular genes. In this work we demonstrate that pUL83 is also important for efficient induction of transcription from the viral major immediate-early promoter. Infection with a mutant virus containing a premature translation termination codon in the UL83 open reading frame (ORF) (UL83Stop) resulted in decreased transcription from the major immediate-early promoter in a time- and multiplicity-dependent manner. Expression of pUL83 alone is capable of transactivating the promoter in a reporter assay, and pUL83 associates with the promoter in infected cells. To investigate the mechanism by which the protein regulates the major immediate-early promoter, we utilized a mutant virus expressing an epitope-tagged pUL83 from its own promoter to identify protein binding partners for pUL83 during infection. We identified and confirmed the interaction of pUL83 with cellular IFI16 family members throughout the course of HCMV infection. pUL83 recruits IFI16 to the major immediate-early promoter, and IFI16 binding at the promoter is dependent upon the presence of pUL83. Consistent with the results obtained with the UL83Stop virus, infection of IFI16 knockdown cells with wild-type virus resulted in decreased levels of immediate-early transcripts compared to those of control cells. These data identify a previously unknown role for pUL83 in the initiation of the human cytomegalovirus gene expression cascade.
Womack, Andrew, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient virion egress.”. MBio 15 (2010). Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus virion is composed of a DNA genome packaged in an icosahedral capsid, surrounded by a tegument of protein and RNA, all enclosed within a glycoprotein-studded envelope. Achieving this intricate virion architecture requires a coordinated process of assembly and egress. We show here that pUL71, a component of the virion tegument with a previously uncharacterized function, is required for the virus-induced reorganization of host cell membranes, which is necessary for efficient viral assembly and egress. A mutant that did not express pUL71 was able to efficiently accumulate viral genomes and proteins that were tested but was defective for the production and release of infectious virions. The protein localized to vesicular structures at the periphery of the viral assembly compartment, and during infection with a pUL71-deficient virus, these structures were grossly enlarged and aberrantly contained a cellular marker of late endosomes/lysosomes. Mutant virus preparations exhibited less infectivity per unit genome than wild-type virus preparations, due to aggregation of virus particles and their association with membrane fragments. Finally, mutant virus particles accumulated within the cytoplasm of infected cells and were localized to the periphery of large structures with properties of lysosomes, whose formation was kinetically favored in mutant-virus-infected cells. Together, these observations point to a role for pUL71 in the establishment and/or maintenance of a functional viral assembly compartment that is required for normal virion trafficking and egress from infected cells.
Terhune, Scott S, et al.Human cytomegalovirus UL29/28 protein interacts with components of the NuRD complex which promote accumulation of immediate-early RNA.”. PLoS Pathog 66 (2010): , 6, 6, e1000965. Web.Abstract
Histone deacetylation plays a pivotal role in regulating human cytomegalovirus gene expression. In this report, we have identified candidate HDAC1-interacting proteins in the context of infection by using a method for rapid immunoisolation of an epitope-tagged protein coupled with mass spectrometry. Putative interactors included multiple human cytomegalovirus-coded proteins. In particular, the interaction of pUL38 and pUL29/28 with HDAC1 was confirmed by reciprocal immunoprecipitations. HDAC1 is present in numerous protein complexes, including the HDAC1-containing nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase protein complex, NuRD. pUL38 and pUL29/28 associated with the MTA2 component of NuRD, and shRNA-mediated knockdown of the RBBP4 and CHD4 constituents of NuRD inhibited HCMV immediate-early RNA and viral DNA accumulation; together this argues that multiple components of the NuRD complex are needed for efficient HCMV replication. Consistent with a positive acting role for the NuRD elements during viral replication, the growth of pUL29/28- or pUL38-deficient viruses could not be rescued by treating infected cells with the deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A. Transient expression of pUL29/28 enhanced activity of the HCMV major immediate-early promoter in a reporter assay, regardless of pUL38 expression. Importantly, induction of the major immediate-early reporter activity by pUL29/28 required functional NuRD components, consistent with the inhibition of immediate-early RNA accumulation within infected cells after knockdown of RBBP4 and CHD4. We propose that pUL29/28 modifies the NuRD complex to stimulate the accumulation of immediate-early RNAs.
Mitchell, Dora P, et al.Human cytomegalovirus UL28 and UL29 open reading frames encode a spliced mRNA and stimulate accumulation of immediate-early RNAs.”. J Virol 83.19 (2009): , 83, 19, 10187-97. Web.Abstract
We have identified a spliced transcript that contains sequences from the HCMV UL29 and UL28 open reading frames. It contains amino-terminal UL29 sequences followed by UL28 sequences, and it includes a poly(A) signal derived from the 3'-untranslated region following the UL26 open reading frame. UL29/28 RNA is expressed with early kinetics, and a virus containing a FLAG epitope inserted at the amino terminus of UL29 expressed a tagged approximately 79-kDa protein, pUL29/28, that was detected at 6 h postinfection. The virus also expressed a less-abundant tagged 41-kDa protein, which corresponds in size to a protein that could be produced by translation of an unspliced UL29/28 transcript. Consistent with this prediction, both unspliced and spliced UL29/28 transcript was present in RNA isolated from polysomes. FLAG-tagged protein from the UL29/28 locus accumulated within nuclear viral replication centers during the early phase of infection. Late after infection it was present in the cytoplasm as well, and the protein was present and resistant to proteinase treatment in partially purified preparations of viral particles. Disruption of the UL29/28 locus by mutation resulted in a 10-fold decrease in the levels of DNA replication along with a similar reduction in virus yield. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed an approximately 2-fold decrease in immediate-early gene expression at 4 to 10 h postinfection compared to the wild-type virus, and transient expression of pUL29/28 activated the major immediate-early promoter. Our results argue that the UL29/28 locus contributes to activation of immediate-early gene expression.
Lilja, Anders E, et al.Functional genetic analysis of rhesus cytomegalovirus: Rh01 is an epithelial cell tropism factor.”. J Virol 82.5 (2008): , 82, 5, 2170-81. Web.Abstract
Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) is an emerging model for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pathogenesis that facilitates experimental CMV infection of a natural primate host closely related to humans. We have generated a library of RhCMV mutants with lesions in genes whose HCMV orthologues have been characterized as nonessential for replication in human fibroblasts, and we characterized their replication in rhesus fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The RhCMV mutants grew well in fibroblasts, as predicted by earlier studies with HCMV. However, mutations in four genes caused replication defects in rhesus retinal pigment epithelial cells: Rh01 (an HCMV TRL1 orthologue), Rh159 (HCMV UL148), Rh160 (HCMV UL132), and Rh203 (HCMV US22). Growth of the Rh01-deficient mutant was examined in detail. After entry into epithelial cells, the mutant expressed representative viral proteins, accumulated viral DNA, and generated infectious virus, but it failed to spread efficiently. We conclude that Rh01 is a cell tropism determinant that has the potential to dramatically affect virus spread and pathogenesis.
Cuevas-Bennett, Christian, and Thomas Shenk. “Dynamic histone H3 acetylation and methylation at human cytomegalovirus promoters during replication in fibroblasts.”. J Virol 82.19 (2008): , 82, 19, 9525-36. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus DNA is packaged in virions without histones but associates with histones upon reaching the nucleus of an infected cell. Since transcription is modulated by the interplay of histone modifications, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to detect acetylation and methylation of histone H3 at viral promoters at different times during the viral replication cycle. Histone H3 at immediate-early promoters is acetylated at the start of infection, while it is initially methylated at early and late promoters. Acetylation at immediate-early promoters is dynamic, with a high level of activating modifications at 3 and 6 h postinfection (hpi), followed by a marked reduction at 12 hpi. All viral promoters, as well as nonpromoter regions, are modified with activating acetylations at 24 to 72 hpi. The transient reduction in histone H3 acetylation at the major immediate-early promoter depends on the cis-repressive sequence to which the UL122-coded IE2 protein binds. A mutant virus lacking this element exhibited decreased IE2 binding at the major immediate-early promoter and failed to show reduced acetylation of histone H3 residing at this promoter at 12 hpi. Our results demonstrate that cytomegalovirus chromatin undergoes dynamic, promoter-specific histone modifications early in the infectious cycle, after which the entire chromosome becomes highly acetylated.
Lilja, Anders E, and Thomas Shenk. “Efficient replication of rhesus cytomegalovirus variants in multiple rhesus and human cell types.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105.50 (2008): , 105, 50, 19950-5. Web.Abstract
Rhesus cytomegalovirus infection of rhesus macaques has emerged as a model for human cytomegalovirus pathogenesis. The UL128-UL131 locus of the human virus is a primary determinant for viral entry into epithelial cells, an important cell type during cytomegalovirus infection. Rhesus cytomegalovirus strain 68-1 spreads slowly when grown in cultured rhesus epithelial cells, and it does not code for ORFs corresponding to UL128 and the second exon of UL130. We repaired the UL128-UL131 locus of strain 68-1, using rhesus cytomegalovirus strain 180.92 as template, to generate BRh68-1.1. We also repaired a mutation in the UL36 ORF in BRh68-1.1 to make BRh68-1.2. Both repaired derivatives replicate much more efficiently than parental 68-1 virus in rhesus epithelial cells, suggesting that strain 68-1 may be attenuated. Intriguingly, BRh68-1.1 and BRh68-1.2 replicate efficiently in cultured human epithelial cells and endothelial cells. The extended human cell host range of the repaired viruses raises the possibility that rhesus cytomegalovirus-like viruses will be found in humans.
Moorman, Nathaniel J, et al.Human cytomegalovirus protein UL38 inhibits host cell stress responses by antagonizing the tuberous sclerosis protein complex.”. Cell Host Microbe 34 (2008): , 3, 4, 253-62. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus proteins alter host cells to favor virus replication. These viral proteins include pUL38, which prevents apoptosis. To characterize the mode of action of pUL38, we modified the viral genome to encode an epitope-tagged pUL38 and used rapid immunoaffinity purification to isolate pUL38-interacting host proteins, which were then identified by mass spectrometry. One of the cellular proteins identified was TSC2, a constituent of the tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor protein complex (TSC1/2). TSC1/2 integrates stress signals and regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a protein complex that responds to stress by limiting protein synthesis and cell growth. We showed that pUL38 interacts with TSC1 and TSC2 in cells infected with wild-type cytomegalovirus. Furthermore, TSC1/2 failed to regulate mTORC1 in cells expressing pUL38, and these cells exhibited the enlarged size characteristic of cytomegalovirus infection. Thus, pUL38 supports virus replication at least in part by blocking cellular responses to stress.
Schröer, Jörg, and Thomas Shenk. “Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity blocks cell-to-cell spread of human cytomegalovirus.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105.49 (2008): , 105, 49, 19468-73. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus has previously been shown to induce the accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 RNA, protein, and enzyme activity. High doses of cyclooxygenase inhibitors substantially block viral replication in cultured fibroblasts. However, doses corresponding to the level of drug achieved in the plasma of patients have little effect on the replication of human cytomegalovirus in cultured cells. Here, we demonstrate that two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tolfenamic acid and indomethacin, markedly reduce direct cell-to-cell spread of human cytomegalovirus in cultured fibroblasts. The block is reversed by addition of prostaglandin E2, proving that it results from the action of the drugs on cyclooxygenase activity. Because direct cell-to-cell spread likely contributes importantly to pathogenesis of the virus, we suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might help to control human cytomegalovirus infections in conjunction with other anti-viral treatments.
Murphy, Eain, et al.Suppression of immediate-early viral gene expression by herpesvirus-coded microRNAs: implications for latency.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105.14 (2008): , 105, 14, 5453-8. Web.Abstract
A quantitative algorithm was developed and applied to predict target genes of microRNAs encoded by herpesviruses. Although there is almost no conservation among microRNAs of different herpesvirus subfamilies, a common pattern of regulation emerged. The algorithm predicts that herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus all employ microRNAs to suppress expression of their own genes, including their immediate-early genes. In the case of human cytomegalovirus, a virus-coded microRNA, miR-112-1, was predicted to target the viral immediate-early protein 1 mRNA. To test this prediction, mutant viruses were generated that were unable to express the microRNA, or encoded an immediate-early 1 mRNA lacking its target site. Analysis of RNA and protein within infected cells demonstrated that miR-UL112-1 inhibits expression of the major immediate-early protein. We propose that herpesviruses use microRNA-mediated suppression of immediate-early genes as part of their strategy to enter and maintain latency.
Munger, Joshua, et al.Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy.”. Nat Biotechnol 26.10 (2008): , 26, 10, 1179-86. Web.Abstract
Viruses rely on the metabolic network of their cellular hosts to provide energy and building blocks for viral replication. We developed a flux measurement approach based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantify changes in metabolic activity induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This approach reliably elucidated fluxes in cultured mammalian cells by monitoring metabolome labeling kinetics after feeding cells (13)C-labeled forms of glucose and glutamine. Infection with HCMV markedly upregulated flux through much of the central carbon metabolism, including glycolysis. Particularly notable increases occurred in flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its efflux to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis suppressed the replication of both HCMV and influenza A, another enveloped virus. These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy.
Weinberger, Leor S, and Thomas Shenk. “An HIV feedback resistor: auto-regulatory circuit deactivator and noise buffer.”. PLoS Biol 51 (2007): , 5, 1, e9. Web.Abstract
Animal viruses (e.g., lentiviruses and herpesviruses) use transcriptional positive feedback (i.e., transactivation) to regulate their gene expression. But positive-feedback circuits are inherently unstable when turned off, which presents a particular dilemma for latent viruses that lack transcriptional repressor motifs. Here we show that a dissipative feedback resistor, composed of enzymatic interconversion of the transactivator, converts transactivation circuits into excitable systems that generate transient pulses of expression, which decay to zero. We use HIV-1 as a model system and analyze single-cell expression kinetics to explore whether the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) uses a resistor to shut off transactivation. The Tat feedback circuit was found to lack bi-stability and Tat self-cooperativity but exhibited a pulse of activity upon transactivation, all in agreement with the feedback resistor model. Guided by a mathematical model, biochemical and genetic perturbation of the suspected Tat feedback resistor altered the circuit's stability and reduced susceptibility to molecular noise, in agreement with model predictions. We propose that the feedback resistor is a necessary, but possibly not sufficient, condition for turning off noisy transactivation circuits lacking a repressor motif (e.g., HIV-1 Tat). Feedback resistors may be a paradigm for examining other auto-regulatory circuits and may inform upon how viral latency is established, maintained, and broken.
Wang, Dai, et al.Human cytomegalovirus uses two distinct pathways to enter retinal pigmented epithelial cells.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104.50 (2007): , 104, 50, 20037-42. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus infects multiple cell types, including fibroblasts and epithelial cells. It penetrates fibroblasts by fusion at the cell surface but is endocytosed into epithelial cells. In this report, we demonstrate by electron microscopy that the virus uses two different routes to enter retinal pigmented epithelial cells, depending on the cell type in which the infecting virus was produced. Virus produced in epithelial cells preferentially fuses with the plasma membrane, whereas fibroblast-derived virus mostly enters by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Treatment of epithelial cells with agents that block endosome acidification inhibited infection by virus produced in fibroblasts but had only a modest effect on infection by virus from epithelial cells. Epithelial cell-generated virions had higher intrinsic "fusion-from-without" activity than fibroblast-generated particles, and the two virus preparations triggered different cellular signaling responses, as evidenced by markedly different transcriptional profiles. We propose that the cell type in which a human cytomegalovirus particle is produced likely influences its subsequent spread and its contribution to pathogenesis.
Munger, Joshua, et al.Dynamics of the cellular metabolome during human cytomegalovirus infection.”. PLoS Pathog 212 (2006): , 2, 12, e132. Web.Abstract
Viral replication requires energy and macromolecular precursors derived from the metabolic network of the host cell. Despite this reliance, the effect of viral infection on host cell metabolic composition remains poorly understood. Here we applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 63 different intracellular metabolites at multiple times after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of human fibroblasts. Parallel microarray analysis provided complementary data on transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways. As the infection progressed, the levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis markedly increased. HCMV-induced transcriptional upregulation of specific glycolytic and citric acid cycle enzymes mirrored the increases in metabolite levels. The peak levels of numerous metabolites during infection far exceeded those observed during normal fibroblast growth or quiescence, demonstrating that HCMV markedly disrupts cellular metabolic homeostasis and institutes its own specific metabolic program.
Gaspar, Miguel, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus inhibits a DNA damage response by mislocalizing checkpoint proteins.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103.8 (2006): , 103, 8, 2821-6. Web.Abstract
The DNA damage checkpoint pathway responds to DNA damage and induces a cell cycle arrest to allow time for DNA repair. Several viruses are known to activate or modulate this cellular response. Here we show that the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated checkpoint pathway, which responds to double-strand breaks in DNA, is activated in response to human cytomegalovirus DNA replication. However, this activation does not propagate through the pathway; it is blocked at the level of the effector kinase, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2). Late after infection, several checkpoint proteins, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Chk2, are mislocalized to a cytoplasmic virus assembly zone, where they are colocalized with virion structural proteins. This colocalization was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of virion proteins with an antibody that recognizes Chk2. Virus replication was resistant to ionizing radiation, which causes double-strand breaks in DNA. We propose that human CMV DNA replication activates the checkpoint response to DNA double-strand breaks, and the virus responds by altering the localization of checkpoint proteins to the cytoplasm and thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway.
Sharon-Friling, Ronit, et al.Human cytomegalovirus pUL37x1 induces the release of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103.50 (2006): , 103, 50, 19117-22. Web.Abstract
The human CMV UL37x1-encoded protein, also known as the viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis, traffics to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of infected cells. It induces the fragmentation of mitochondria and blocks apoptosis. We demonstrate that UL37x1 protein mobilizes Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. This release is accompanied by cell rounding, cell swelling, and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and these morphological changes can be substantially blocked by a Ca(2+) chelating agent. The UL37x1-mediated release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum likely has multiple consequences, including induction of the unfolded protein response, modulation of mitochondrial function, induction of mitochondrial fission, and protection against apoptotic stimuli.
Feng, Xuyan, et al.Human cytomegalovirus pUS24 is a virion protein that functions very early in the replication cycle.”. J Virol 80.17 (2006): , 80, 17, 8371-8. Web.Abstract
We have characterized the function of the human cytomegalovirus US24 gene, a US22 gene family member. Two US24-deficient mutants (BADinUS24 and BADsubUS24) exhibited a 20- to 30-fold growth defect, compared to their wild-type parent (BADwt), after infection at a relatively low (0.01 PFU/cell) or high (1 PFU/cell) input multiplicity. Representative virus-encoded proteins and viral DNA accumulated with normal kinetics to wild-type levels after infection with mutant virus when cells received equal numbers of mutant and wild-type infectious units. Further, the proteins were properly localized and no ultrastructural differences were found by electron microscopy in mutant-virus-infected cells compared to wild-type-virus-infected cells. However, virions produced by US24-deficient mutants had a 10-fold-higher genome-to-PFU ratio than wild-type virus. When infections were performed using equal numbers of input virus particles, the expression of immediate-early, early, and late viral proteins was substantially delayed and decreased in the absence of US24 protein. This delay is not due to inefficient virus entry, since two tegument proteins and viral DNA moved to the nucleus equally well in mutant- and wild-type-virus-infected cells. In summary, US24 is a virion protein and virions produced by US24-deficient viruses exhibit a block to the human cytomegalovirus replication cycle after viral DNA reaches the nucleus and before immediate-early mRNAs are transcribed.
Kulesza, Caroline A, and Thomas Shenk. “Murine cytomegalovirus encodes a stable intron that facilitates persistent replication in the mouse.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103.48 (2006): , 103, 48, 18302-7. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 5-kb RNA previously has been shown to be a stable intron that is not required for efficient replication of the virus in cultured fibroblasts. Here we describe a murine cytomegalovirus 7.2-kb ortholog of the human cytomegalovirus 5-kb RNA. The 5' end of the 7.2-kb transcript maps to a consensus splice-donor site that is conserved among all cytomegaloviruses. We constructed mutant viruses lacking the entire 7.2-kb coding domain, the splice-donor site predicted to function in the generation of the intron or a hairpin predicted to stabilize the intron. All three mutant viruses failed to produce the 7.2-kb RNA, supporting our conclusion that it is a stable intron. Each of the mutants replicated with normal kinetics in cultured fibroblasts, but the mutants exhibited a clear defect within infected mice. Although the initial acute phase at 4 days after infection appeared to be normal, none of the mutant viruses progressed to the persistent phase, i.e., little virus was detected in the salivary gland at 14 days after infection. The intron functions as an in vivo virulence factor, facilitating progression from the acute to persistent phase of infection.
Munger, Joshua, Dong Yu, and Thomas Shenk. “UL26-deficient human cytomegalovirus produces virions with hypophosphorylated pp28 tegument protein that is unstable within newly infected cells.”. J Virol 80.7 (2006): , 80, 7, 3541-8. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus UL26 open reading frame encodes proteins of 21 and 27 kDa that result from the use of two different in-frame initiation codons. The UL26 protein is a constituent of the virion and thus is delivered to cells upon viral entry. We have characterized a mutant of human cytomegalovirus in which the UL26 open reading frame has been deleted. The UL26 deletion mutant has a profound growth defect, the magnitude of which is dependent on the multiplicity of infection. Two very early defects were discovered. First, even though they were present in normal amounts within mutant virions, the UL99-coded pp28 and UL83-coded pp65 tegument proteins were present in reduced amounts at the earliest times assayed within newly infected cells; second, there was a delay in immediate-early mRNA and protein accumulation. Further analysis revealed that although wild-type levels of the pp28 tegument protein were present in UL26 deletion mutant virions, the protein was hypophosphorylated. We conclude that the UL26 protein influences the normal phosphorylation of at least pp28 in virions and possibly additional tegument proteins. We propose that the hypophosphorylation of tegument proteins causes their destabilization within newly infected cells, perhaps disrupting the normal detegumentation process and leading to a delay in the onset of immediate-early gene expression.
Silva, Maria C, Jörg Schröer, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus cell-to-cell spread in the absence of an essential assembly protein.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102.6 (2005): , 102, 6, 2081-6. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus UL99-coded pp28 is a myristoylated phosphoprotein located in the virion tegument domain, which resides between the capsid and envelope. A previous study has demonstrated that BADsubUL99, a pp28-deficient mutant virus, fails to assemble enveloped virus particles. Capsids, coated with tegument proteins, accumulate in the cytoplasm of mutant virus-infected cells. This phenotype indicates that pp28 is required for the acquisition of an envelope; it presumably acts by directing tegument-associated capsids to bud through an intracellular membrane derived from the cell's secretory apparatus that has been modified to contain viral transmembrane glycoproteins. Here we demonstrate that BADsubUL99 can spread from cell to cell, even though highly sensitive assays fail to detect infectious virus progeny in cultures of infected fibroblasts. We propose that, in the absence of pp28, tegument-coated capsids might nevertheless bud through cellular membranes, including the plasma membrane. If this suggestion is correct, the enveloped particle could potentially infect an adjacent cell to mediate the cell-to-cell spread that is observed. This mode of spread might also occur after infection with wild-type virus, and it could facilitate immune evasion, assuming that the resulting particles do not have a normal complement of virus-coded envelope glycoproteins.
Wang, Dai, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus UL131 open reading frame is required for epithelial cell tropism.”. J Virol 79.16 (2005): , 79, 16, 10330-8. Web.Abstract
Epithelial cells are one of the prominent cell types infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) within its host. However, many cultured epithelial cells, such as ARPE-19 retinal pigmented epithelial cells, are poorly infected by laboratory-adapted strains in cell culture, and little is known about the viral factors that determine HCMV epithelial cell tropism. In this report, we demonstrate that the UL131 open reading frame (ORF), and likely the entire UL131-128 locus, is required for efficient infection of epithelial cells. Repair of the mutated UL131 gene in the AD169 laboratory strain of HCMV restored its ability to infect both epithelial and endothelial cells while compromising its ability to replicate in fibroblasts. ARPE-19 epithelial cells support replication of the repaired AD169 virus as well as clinical isolates of HCMV. Productive infection of cultured epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts with the repaired AD169 virus leads to extensive membrane fusion and syncytium formation, suggesting that the virus may spread through cell-cell fusion.
Wang, Dai, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus virion protein complex required for epithelial and endothelial cell tropism.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102.50 (2005): , 102, 50, 18153-8. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus replicates in many different cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. However, laboratory strains of the virus, many of which were developed as attenuated vaccine candidates by serial passage in fibroblasts, have lost the ability to infect epithelial and endothelial cells. Their growth is restricted primarily to fibroblasts, due to mutations in the UL131-UL128 locus. We now demonstrate that two products of this locus, pUL130 and pUL128, form a complex with gH and gL, but not gO. The AD169 laboratory strain, which lacks a functional UL131 protein, produces virions containing only the gH-gL-gO complex. An epithelial and endothelial cell tropic AD169 variant in which the UL131 ORF has been repaired, termed BADrUL131, produces virions that carry both gH-gL-gO and gH-gL-pUL128-pUL130 complexes. Antibodies against pUL130 and pUL128 block infection of epithelial and endothelial cells by BADrUL131 and the fusion-inducing factor X clinical human cytomegalovirus isolate but do not affect the efficiency with which fibroblasts are infected.
Goodrum, Felicia, et al.Differential outcomes of human cytomegalovirus infection in primitive hematopoietic cell subpopulations.”. Blood 104.3 (2004): , 104, 3, 687-95. Web.Abstract
The cellular reservoir for latent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the hematopoietic compartment, and the mechanisms governing a latent infection and reactivation from latency are unknown. Previous work has demonstrated that HCMV infects CD34+ progenitors and expresses a limited subset of viral genes. The outcome of HCMV infection may depend on the cell subpopulations infected within the heterogeneous CD34+ compartment. We compared HCMV infection in well-defined CD34+ cell subpopulations. HCMV infection inhibited hematopoietic colony formation from CD34+/CD38- but not CD34+/c-kit+ cells. CD34+/CD38- cells transiently expressed a large subset of HCMV genes that were not expressed in CD34+/c-kit+ cells or cells expressing more mature cell surface phenotypes. Although viral genomes were present in infected cells, viral gene expression was undetectable by 10 days after infection. Importantly, viral replication could be reactivated by coculture with permissive fibroblasts only from the CD34+/CD38- population. Strikingly, a subpopulation of CD34+/CD38- cells expressing a stem cell phenotype (lineage-/Thy-1+) supported a productive HCMV infection. These studies demonstrate that the outcome of HCMV infection in the hematopoietic compartment is dependent on the nature of the cell subpopulations infected and that CD34+/CD38- cells support an HCMV infection with the hallmarks of latency.
Kulesza, Caroline A, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus 5-kilobase immediate-early RNA is a stable intron.”. J Virol 78.23 (2004): , 78, 23, 13182-9. Web.Abstract
Immediate-early viral gene products of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are derived from several genomic loci and largely serve to establish a cellular environment conducive to viral replication. We have further examined an unusual immediate-early transcript known as the 5-kb RNA, concluding that it is a stable intron encoded by HCMV. The 5-kb RNA is highly AT rich in sequence and lacks open reading frames likely to be translated into protein. We confirmed the absence of polyadenylation of the transcript and showed that it is primarily nuclear localized during viral infection. We mapped the 5' end of the 5-kb RNA to a consensus splice donor site and localized the 3' end in the vicinity of a splice acceptor site. In transfection studies, we showed that the 5-kb RNA can be spliced from a heterologous primary transcript. Using bacterial artificial chromosome technology, we constructed a viral recombinant containing a mutation in the 5' splice donor site that defines the 5' end of the RNA and found that this mutation eliminates expression of the 5-kb RNA during viral infection. This mutant grows in human fibroblasts without complementation. Taken together, these data support the conclusion that the 5-kb RNA is a stable intron expressed by HCMV.
Wang, Dai, Wade Bresnahan, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus encodes a highly specific RANTES decoy receptor.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101.47 (2004): , 101, 47, 16642-7. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus pUL21.5 protein is a small, secreted glycoprotein whose mRNA is packaged into virions. We demonstrate that pUL21.5 protein is a soluble CC chemokine receptor that functions as a decoy to modulate the host immune response to infection. In contrast to other viral chemokine-binding proteins, which interact promiscuously with multiple chemokines, pUL21.5 selectively binds RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) with high affinity. By binding RANTES, pUL21.5 blocks RANTES interaction with its cellular receptors. We propose that human cytomegalovirus directs the synthesis of a secreted, virus-coded protein that modulates the host antiviral response even before the newly infecting viral genome becomes transcriptionally active.
Nevels, Michael, Christina Paulus, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 protein facilitates viral replication by antagonizing histone deacetylation.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101.49 (2004): , 101, 49, 17234-9. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus 72-kDa immediate-early (IE)1 and 86-kDa IE2 proteins are expressed at the start of infection, and they are believed to exert much of their function through promiscuous transcriptional activation of viral and cellular gene expression. Here, we show that the impaired growth of an IE1-deficient mutant virus in human fibroblasts is efficiently rescued by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors of three distinct chemical classes. In the absence of IE1 expression, the viral major IE and UL44 early promoters exhibited decreased de novo acetylation of histone H4 during the early phase of infection, and the hypoacetylation correlated with reduced transcription and accumulation of the respective gene products. Consistent with these findings, IE1 interacts specifically with HDAC3 within infected cells. We also demonstrate an interaction between IE2 and HDAC3. We propose that the ability to modify chromatin is fundamental to transcriptional activation by IE1 and, likely, IE2 as well.
Adamo, Joan E, Jörg Schröer, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus TRS1 protein is required for efficient assembly of DNA-containing capsids.”. J Virol 78.19 (2004): , 78, 19, 10221-9. Web.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus tegument protein, pTRS1, appears to function at several discrete stages of the virus replication cycle. We previously demonstrated that pTRS1 acts during the late phase of infection to facilitate the production of infectious virions. We now have more precisely identified the late pTRS1 function by further study of a mutant virus lacking the TRS1 region, ADsubTRS1. We observed a significant reduction in the production of capsids, especially DNA-containing C-capsids, in mutant virus-infected cells. ADsubTRS1 exhibited normal cleavage of DNA concatemers, so the defect in C-capsid production must occur after DNA cleavage and before DNA is stably inserted into a capsid. Further, the normal virus-induced morphological reorganization of the nucleus did not occur after infection with the pTRS1-deficient mutant.
Terhune, Scott S, Jörg Schröer, and Thomas Shenk. “RNAs are packaged into human cytomegalovirus virions in proportion to their intracellular concentration.”. J Virol 78.19 (2004): , 78, 19, 10390-8. Web.Abstract
The assembly of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) virions is a complex process and involves the incorporation of viral transcripts. These RNAs are delivered to the newly infected cells and have the potential to be translated in the absence of HCMV gene expression. We have quantified the relative amount of RNAs in HCMV virions and infected cells with real-time reverse transcription-PCR and observed that viral and cellular RNAs are packaged in proportion to the amount of RNA within the cell at the time of assembly. To determine whether cis elements influenced RNA packaging, we constructed a recombinant HCMV mutant virus that expressed the yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) gene fused to the virion RNA UL21.5. We also constructed a mutant virus in which the UL21.5 transcription unit was replaced with the YFP gene. YFP RNA was incorporated into both viruses, indicating that RNA is incorporated in the absence of a virus-specific signal motif. Furthermore, with in situ hybridization, packaged transcripts were observed throughout the cytoplasm of the infected cells, including the site of virus assembly. Several proteins that nonspecifically interact with RNA, including the tegument protein pp28, were found within HCMV virions. These studies demonstrate that both viral and cellular RNAs are nonspecifically incorporated into HCMV, potentially through interactions with several virion proteins.
Nevels, Michael, Wolfram Brune, and Thomas Shenk. “SUMOylation of the human cytomegalovirus 72-kilodalton IE1 protein facilitates expression of the 86-kilodalton IE2 protein and promotes viral replication.”. J Virol 78.14 (2004): , 78, 14, 7803-12. Web.Abstract
The 72-kDa immediate-early 1 protein (IE1-72kDa) of human cytomegalovirus has been previously shown to be posttranslationally modified by covalent conjugation to the ubiquitin-related protein SUMO-1. Using an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of human cytomegalovirus, we constructed a mutant virus (BADpmIE1-K450R) that is deficient for SUMOylation of IE1-72 kDa due to a single amino acid exchange in the SUMO-1 attachment site. Compared to wild-type virus, this mutant grew more slowly and generated a reduced yield in infected human fibroblasts, indicating that SUMO modification is required for the full activity of IE1-72 kDa. The lack of SUMOylation did not affect the intranuclear localization of IE1-72 kDa, including its ability to target to and disrupt PML bodies and to bind to mitotic chromatin. Likewise, SUMOylation-deficient IE1-72 kDa activated several viral promoters as efficiently as the wild-type protein. However, the failure to modify IE1-72 kDa resulted in substantially reduced levels of the IE2 transcript and its 86-kDa protein (IE2-86 kDa). These observations suggest that SUMO modification of IE1-72 kDa contributes to efficient HCMV replication by promoting the accumulation of IE2-86 kDa.
Yu, Dong, Maria C Silva, and Thomas Shenk. “Functional map of human cytomegalovirus AD169 defined by global mutational analysis.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100.21 (2003): , 100, 21, 12396-401. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus has a complex double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 240,000 bp that contains approximately 150 ORFs likely to encode proteins, most of whose functions are not well understood. We have used an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome to introduce 413 defined insertion and substitution mutations into the human cytomegalovirus AD169 genome by random and site-directed transposon mutagenesis. Mutations were produced in all unique ORFs with a high probability of encoding proteins for which mutants have not been previously documented and in many previously characterized ORFs. The growth of selected mutants was assayed in cultured human fibroblasts, and we now recognize 41 essential, 88 nonessential, and 27 augmenting ORFs. Most essential and augmenting genes are located in the central region, and nonessential genes generally cluster near the ends of the viral genome.
Kalejta, Robert F, Jill T Bechtel, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus pp71 stimulates cell cycle progression by inducing the proteasome-dependent degradation of the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressors.”. Mol Cell Biol 23.6 (2003): , 23, 6, 1885-95. Print.Abstract
The oncoproteins of the DNA tumor viruses, adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 T antigen, and papillomavirus E7, each interact with the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressors, leading to cell cycle stimulation, apoptosis induction, and cellular transformation. These proteins utilize a conserved LXCXE motif, which is also found in cellular proteins, to target the retinoblastoma family. Here, we describe a herpesvirus protein that shares a subset of the properties of the DNA tumor virus oncoproteins but maintains important differences as well. The human cytomegalovirus pp71 protein employs an LXCXD motif to attack the retinoblastoma family members and induce DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. pp71 binds to and induces the degradation of the hypophosphorylated forms of the retinoblastoma protein and its family members p107 and p130 in a proteasome-dependent manner. However, pp71 does not induce apoptosis and fails to transform cells. Thus, the similarities and differences in comparison to E1A, T antigen, and E7 make pp71 an interesting new tool with which to further dissect the role of the retinoblastoma/E2F pathway in cellular growth control and carcinogenesis.
Kalejta, Robert F, and Thomas Shenk. “The human cytomegalovirus UL82 gene product (pp71) accelerates progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle.”. J Virol 77.6 (2003): , 77, 6, 3451-9. Print.Abstract
As viruses are reliant upon their host cell to serve as proper environments for their replication, many have evolved mechanisms to alter intracellular conditions to suit their own needs. For example, human cytomegalovirus induces quiescent cells to enter the cell cycle and then arrests them in late G(1), before they enter the S phase, a cell cycle compartment that is presumably favorable for viral replication. Here we show that the protein product of the human cytomegalovirus UL82 gene, pp71, can accelerate the movement of cells through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. This activity would help infected cells reach the late G(1) arrest point sooner and thus may stimulate the infectious cycle. pp71 also induces DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, but a pp71 mutant protein that is unable to induce quiescent cells to enter the cell cycle still retains the ability to accelerate the G(1) phase. Thus, the mechanism through which pp71 accelerates G(1) cell cycle progression appears to be distinct from the one that it employs to induce quiescent cells to exit G(0) and subsequently enter the S phase.
Browne, Edward P, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus UL83-coded pp65 virion protein inhibits antiviral gene expression in infected cells.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100.20 (2003): , 100, 20, 11439-44. Web.Abstract
The initial interaction of human cytomegalovirus with fibroblasts triggers, and then partially blocks, an innate immune response pathway that leads to the induction of IFN-responsive genes and proinflammatory chemokines. Infection of fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus inhibited their ability to respond to exogenous IFN. Consistent with the observation that the block did not depend on de novo viral protein synthesis, ectopic expression of the viral UL83-coded pp65, an abundant virion protein, inhibited IFN signaling. Furthermore, DNA array analysis showed that infection with a pp65-deficient mutant virus caused a much stronger induction of many IFN-response and proinflammatory chemokine RNAs than infection with wild-type virus. The nuclear DNA-binding activities of transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF1 were induced to a much greater extent after infection with the pp65-deficient mutant than with wild-type virus. IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 DNA-binding was modestly enhanced, whereas IRF3 activity was not affected by mutation of pp65. Together, these results imply that pp65, which is delivered to newly infected cells in the virion, antagonizes a pathway that affects NF-kappaB and IRF1 and prevents the accumulation of mRNAs encoded by numerous cellular antiviral genes.
Silva, Maria C, et al.Human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded pp28 is required for the cytoplasmic envelopment of tegument-associated capsids.”. J Virol 77.19 (2003): , 77, 19, 10594-605. Print.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded pp28 is a myristylated phosphoprotein that is a constituent of the virion. The pp28 protein is positioned within the tegument of the virus particle, a protein structure that resides between the capsid and envelope. In the infected cell, pp28 is found in a cytoplasmic compartment derived from the Golgi apparatus, where the virus buds into vesicles to acquire its final membrane. We have constructed two mutants of human cytomegalovirus that fail to produce the pp28 protein, a substitution mutant (BADsubUL99) and a point mutant (BADpmUL99), and we have propagated them by complementation in pp28-expressing fibroblasts. Both mutant viruses are profoundly defective for growth in normal fibroblasts; no infectious virus could be detected after infection. Whereas normal levels of viral DNA and late proteins were observed in mutant virus-infected cells, large numbers of tegument-associated capsids accumulated in the cytoplasm that failed to acquire an envelope. We conclude that pp28 is required for the final envelopment of the human cytomegalovirus virion in the cytoplasm.
Brune, Wolfram, Michael Nevels, and Thomas Shenk. “Murine cytomegalovirus m41 open reading frame encodes a Golgi-localized antiapoptotic protein.”. J Virol 77.21 (2003): , 77, 21, 11633-43. Print.Abstract
Viruses have evolved various strategies to prevent premature apoptosis of infected host cells. Some of the viral genes mediating antiapoptotic functions have been identified by their homology to cellular genes, but others are structurally unrelated to genes of known function. In this study, we used a random, unbiased approach to identify such genes in the murine cytomegalovirus genome. From a library of random transposon insertion mutants, a mutant virus that caused premature cell death was isolated. The transposon was inserted within open reading frame m41. An independently constructed m41 deletion mutant showed the same phenotype, whereas deletion mutants lacking the adjacent genes m40 and M42 did not. Apoptosis occurred in different cell types, could be blocked by caspase inhibitors, and did not require p53. Within the murine cytomegalovirus genome, m41, m40, and m39 form a small cluster of genes of unknown function. They are homologous to r41, r40, and r39 of rat cytomegalovirus, but lack sequence homology to UL41, UL40, and UL37 exon 1 (UL37x1) which are located at the corresponding positions of the human cytomegalovirus genome. Unlike UL37x1 of human cytomegalovirus, which encodes a mitochondrion-localized inhibitor of apoptosis that is essential for virus replication, m41 encodes a protein that localizes to the Golgi apparatus. The murine cytomegalovirus m41 product is the first example of a Golgi-localized protein that prevents premature apoptosis and thus extends the life span of infected cells.
Kalejta, Robert F, and Thomas Shenk. “Proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation of the Rb family of tumor suppressors by the human cytomegalovirus pp71 protein.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100.6 (2003): , 100, 6, 3263-8. Web.Abstract
Most of the substrates degraded by the proteasome are marked with polyubiquitin chains. However, there are a limited number of examples of nonubiquitinated proteins that are degraded by the proteasome. Here, we describe the degradation of the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressor proteins by the proteasome in the absence of polyubiquitination. The retinoblastoma protein (p105), p107, and p130 are each targeted for degradation by the pp71 protein, which is encoded by the UL82 gene of human cytomegalovirus. It functions to direct their degradation in the absence of other viral proteins. While the pp71-mediated degradation of the retinoblastoma family of proteins requires proteasome function, it occurs without the attachment of ubiquitin to the substrates and in the absence of a functioning ubiquitin-conjugation system.
Murphy, Eain, et al.Reevaluation of human cytomegalovirus coding potential.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100.23 (2003): , 100, 23, 13585-90. Web.Abstract
The Bio-Dictionary-based Gene Finder was used to reassess the coding potential of the AD169 laboratory strain of human cytomegalovirus and sequences in the Toledo strain that are missing in the laboratory strain of the virus. The gene-finder algorithm assesses the potential of an ORF to encode a protein based on matches to a database of amino acid patterns derived from a large collection of proteins. The algorithm was used to score all human cytomegalovirus ORFs with the potential to encode polypeptides >/=50 aa in length. As a further test for functionality, the genomes of the chimpanzee, rhesus, and murine cytomegaloviruses were searched for orthologues of the predicted human cytomegalovirus ORFs. The analysis indicates that 37 previously annotated ORFs ought to be discarded, and at least nine previously unrecognized ORFs with relatively strong coding potential should be added. Thus, the human cytomegalovirus genome appears to contain approximately 192 unique ORFs with the potential to encode a protein. Support for several of the predictions of our in silico analysis was obtained by sequencing several domains within a clinical isolate of human cytomegalovirus.
Murphy, Eain, et al.Coding potential of laboratory and clinical strains of human cytomegalovirus.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100.25 (2003): , 100, 25, 14976-81. Web.Abstract
Six strains of human cytomegalovirus have been sequenced, including two laboratory strains (AD169 and Towne) that have been extensively passaged in fibroblasts and four clinical isolates that have been passaged to a limited extent in the laboratory (Toledo, FIX, PH, and TR). All of the sequenced viral genomes have been cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes. A total of 252 ORFs with the potential to encode proteins have been identified that are conserved in all four clinical isolates of the virus. Multiple sequence alignments revealed substantial variation in the amino acid sequences encoded by many of the conserved ORFs.
Heider, Julie A, et al.Characterization of a human cytomegalovirus with phosphorylation site mutations in the immediate-early 2 protein.”. J Virol 76.2 (2002): , 76, 2, 928-32. Print.Abstract
A human cytomegalovirus mutant (TNsubIE2P) was constructed with alanine substitutions of four residues (T27, S144, T233, and S234) previously shown to be phosphorylated in the immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein. This mutant grew as well as the wild type at both low and high multiplicities of infection. The mutant activated the major immediate-early, UL4, and UL44 promoters to similar levels, and with similar kinetics, as wild-type virus. However, the TNsubIE2P mutant virus transactivated an endogenous simian virus 40 early promoter 4 h earlier and to higher levels than the wild-type virus in infected human fibroblasts. The modification of the IE2 protein by SUMO-1 (i.e., its sumoylated state) was also examined.
Heider, Julie A, Wade A Bresnahan, and Thomas E Shenk. “Construction of a rationally designed human cytomegalovirus variant encoding a temperature-sensitive immediate-early 2 protein.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99.5 (2002): , 99, 5, 3141-6. Web.Abstract
We generated a set of cysteine-to-glycine mutations and screened them to identify a temperature-sensitive allele of the human cytomegalovirus UL122 gene, which encodes the immediate-early 2 transcriptional activating protein. The mutant allele contains a single base pair substitution at amino acid 510. In transcription activation assays, the mutant protein activated the simian virus 40 early and human cytomegalovirus UL112 promoters at 32.5 degrees C but not at 39.5 degrees C. We constructed a mutant virus, BTNtsUL122, in which the wild-type UL122 locus is substituted with the mutant allele. The mutant produced progeny at 32.5 degrees C but not at 39.5 degrees C. Although the mutant virus accumulated immediate-early transcripts and proteins at the nonpermissive temperature, it did not produce any early (UL44 and UL54) and late (UL82) transcripts and it did not replicate its DNA. The mutant's defect at the nonpermissive temperature results, at least in part, from the inability of the temperature-sensitive immediate-early 2 protein to activate early viral promoters, whose products are required for DNA replication and progression into the late phase of the virus growth cycle.
Yu, Dong, et al.Construction of a self-excisable bacterial artificial chromosome containing the human cytomegalovirus genome and mutagenesis of the diploid TRL/IRL13 gene.”. J Virol 76.5 (2002): , 76, 5, 2316-28. Print.Abstract
The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. The BAC vector, flanked by LoxP sites, was inserted immediately after the Us28 open reading frame without deletion of any viral sequences. The BAC vector contained the Cre recombinase-encoding gene disrupted by an intron under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter. When pAD/Cre was transfected into primary human foreskin fibroblast cells, Cre was expressed and mediated site-specific recombination between the two LoxP sites, excising the BAC DNA backbone. This gave rise to progeny virus that was wild type with the exception of an inserted 34-bp LoxP site. We performed site-directed mutagenesis on pAD/Cre to generate a series of viruses in which the TRL/IRL13 diploid genes were disrupted and subsequently repaired. The mutants reach the same titer as the wild-type virus, indicating that the TRL/IRL13 open reading frames are not required for virus growth in cell culture. The sequence of the TRL13 open reading frame in the low-passage Toledo strain of human cytomegalovirus is quite different from the corresponding region in the AD169 strain. One of multiple changes is a frameshift mutation. As a consequence, strain Toledo encodes a putative TRL13 protein whose C-terminal domain is larger (extending through the TRL14 coding region) and encodes in a reading frame different from that of strain AD169. We speculate that the strain AD169 coding region has drifted during passage in the laboratory. We propose that TRL13 has been truncated in strain AD169 and that the partially overlapping TRL14 open reading frame is not functional. This view is consistent with the presence of both TRL13 and -14 on all mRNAs that we have mapped from this region, an organization that would include the much longer strain Toledo TRL13 open reading frame on the mRNAs.
Bechtel, Jill T, and Thomas Shenk. “Human cytomegalovirus UL47 tegument protein functions after entry and before immediate-early gene expression.”. J Virol 76.3 (2002): , 76, 3, 1043-50. Print.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus UL47 open reading frame encodes a 110-kDa protein that is a component of the virion tegument. We have constructed a cytomegalovirus mutant, ADsubUL47, in which the central portion of the UL47 open reading frame has been replaced by two marker genes. The mutant replicated to titers 100-fold lower than those for wild-type virus after infection at either a high or a low input multiplicity in primary human fibroblasts but was substantially complemented on cells expressing UL47 protein. A revertant virus in which the mutation was repaired, ADrevUL47, replicated with wild-type kinetics. Mutant virions lacked UL47 protein and contained reduced amounts of UL48 protein. The mutant was found to be less infectious than wild-type virus, and a defect very early in the replication cycle was observed. Transcription of the viral immediate-early 1 gene was delayed by 8 to 10 h. However, this delay was not the result of a defect in virus entry or of the inability of virion proteins to transactivate the major immediate-early promoter. We also show that the UL47 protein coprecipitated with the UL48 and UL69 tegument proteins and the UL86-encoded major capsid protein. We propose that a UL47-containing complex is involved in the release of viral DNA from the disassembling virus particle and that the loss of UL47 protein causes this process to be delayed.
Kalejta, Robert F, and Thomas Shenk. “Manipulation of the cell cycle by human cytomegalovirus.”. Front Biosci 7 (2002): , 7, d295-306. Print.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus-induced changes to the transcriptome and proteome of infected cells in many ways resemble an abortive mitogenic response. The virus induces quiescent cells to re-enter the cell cycle, but they are prevented from entering the S phase, where the synthesis of the cellular genome would compete with that of the virus for the available precursors for DNA replication. The mechanisms of these cell cycle alterations include transcriptional induction and repression, post-translational modifications and changes in protein stability. Essentially every class of cell cycle regulators is affected, and some of the key proteins are targeted by multiple different mechanisms. While the effects on cell cycle progression of viral infection, and of individual viral genes outside the context of viral infection have been described, it is now important to synthesize these two experimental approaches to gain a more complete understanding of how and why human cytomegalovirus infection affects cell cycle progression.
Shenk, Thomas. “Might a vanguard of mRNAs prepare cells for the arrival of herpes simplex virus?”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99.13 (2002): , 99, 13, 8465-6. Web.
Oliveira, Sofia A, et al.Murine cytomegalovirus m02 gene family protects against natural killer cell-mediated immune surveillance.”. J Virol 76.2 (2002): , 76, 2, 885-94. Print.Abstract
The murine cytomegalovirus m02 gene family encodes putative type I membrane glycoproteins named m02 through m16. A subset of these genes were fused to an epitope tag and cloned into an expression vector. In transfected and murine cytomegalovirus-infected cells, m02, m04, m05, m06, m07, m09, m10, and m12 localized to cytoplasmic structures near the nucleus, whereas m08 and m13 localized to a filamentous structure surrounding the nucleus. Substitution mutants lacking the m02 gene (SMsubm02) or the entire m02 gene family (SMsubm02-16) grew like their wild-type parent in cultured cells. However, whereas SMsubm02 was as pathogenic as the wild-type virus, SMsubm02-16 was markedly less virulent. SMsubm02-16 produced less infectious virus in most organs compared to wild-type virus in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice, but it replicated to wild-type levels in the organs of immunodeficient gamma(c)/Rag2 mice, lacking multiple cell types including natural killer cells, and in C57BL/6J mice depleted of natural killer cells. These results argue that one or more members of the m02 gene family antagonize natural killer cell-mediated immune surveillance.
Goodrum, Felicia D, et al.Human cytomegalovirus gene expression during infection of primary hematopoietic progenitor cells: a model for latency.”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99.25 (2002): , 99, 25, 16255-60. Web.Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resides latently in hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow. Although viral genomes can be found in CD14+ monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, the primary reservoir for latent cytomegalovirus is unknown. We analyzed human hematopoietic subpopulations infected in vitro with a recombinant virus that expresses a green fluorescent protein marker gene. Although many hematopoietic cell subsets were infected in vitro, CD14+ monocytes and various CD34+ subpopulations were infected with the greatest efficiency. We have developed an in vitro system in which to study HCMV infection and latency in CD34+ cells cultured with irradiated stromal cells. Marker gene expression was substantially reduced by 4 days postinfection, and infectious virus was not made during the culture period. However, viral DNA sequences were maintained in infected CD34+ cells for >20 days in culture, and, importantly, virus replication could be reactivated by coculture with human fibroblasts. Using an HCMV gene array, we examined HCMV gene expression in CD34+ cells. The pattern of viral gene expression was distinct from that observed during productive or nonproductive infections. Some of these expressed viral genes may function in latency and are targets for further analysis. Altered gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors may be indicative of the nature and outcome of HCMV infection.
Blankenship, Catherine A, and Thomas Shenk. “Mutant human cytomegalovirus lacking the immediate-early TRS1 coding region exhibits a late defect.”. J Virol 76.23 (2002): , 76, 23, 12290-9. Print.Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus IRS1 and TRS1 open reading frames encode immediate-early proteins with identical N-terminal domains and divergent C-terminal regions. Both proteins have been shown previously to activate reporter genes in transfection assays in cooperation with other viral gene products. We have constructed two viruses carrying substitution mutations within either the IRS1 or TRS1 open reading frame. ADsubIRS1 failed to produce the related IRS1 and IRS1(263) proteins, but it replicated with normal kinetics to produce a wild-type yield in human fibroblasts. The addition in trans of the IRS1(263) protein, which antagonizes the ability of IRS1 and TRS1 proteins to activate reporter genes, did not inhibit the growth of the mutant virus. ADsubTRS1 failed to produce the TRS1 protein, and it generated an approximately 200-fold-reduced yield of infectious virus in comparison to its wild-type parent. Viral DNA accumulated normally, as did a set of viral mRNAs that were monitored in ADsubTRS1-infected cells. However, two tegument proteins were partially mislocalized and infectious virus particles did not accumulate to normal levels within ADsubTRS1-infected cells. Further, infectious ADsubTRS1 particles sedimented abnormally in a glycerol-tartrate gradient, indicating that the structure of the mutant particles is aberrant. Our analysis of the ADsubTRS1 phenotype indicates that the TRS1 protein is required, either directly or indirectly, for efficient assembly of virus particles.