Nitrogen

2021
Subbarao, G.V. & Searchinger, T.D. Opinion: A “more ammonium solution” to mitigate nitrogen pollution and boost crop yields. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, 22, (2021).
2018
Kanter, D.R. & Searchinger, T.D. A technology-forcing approach to reduce nitrogen pollution. Nature Sustainability 1, 544–552 (2018).Abstract
Nitrogen losses from agriculture are already major sources of water and air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and will grow as food production increases by 50% or more by 2050 even if farmers improve their management. This article suggests a technology-forcing, flexible regulatory strategy to encourage fertilizer manufactureers to increase the share and effectiveness of compounds that help limit nitrogen runoff. Such compounds, known as "enhanced efficiency fertilizers" have been shown on average to increase efficiency, reduce runoff and emissions, and increase yields but they have variable results and are not extensively used. This article suggests  incorporating an approached based on so-called "CAFE" standards, which have required automobile manuifacturers to increase the miles per gallon of the cars they sell over time. Requiring fertilizer manufacturers to sell more and better fertilizers over time could encourage the innovations necessary to truly alleviate nitrogen pollution.  Even without fertilizer innovations, the artgicle esetimates that applying this approach to the U.S. corn sector would save millions of dollars for farmers, generate billions in overall economic savings, and cause large reductions in nitrogen losses.  We suggest that governments such as those in China or California could enact these kinds of regulatory programs as part of their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of pollution.