The China Family Panel Studies (CFPS ), launched by Peking University, is a nearly nationwide, comprehensive, longitudinal social survey that is intended to serve research needs on a large variety of social phenomena in contemporary China. This article describes the background and characteristics of the CFPS, which was designed with the help of methods learned from the most influential survey projects in the world and their experiences. Extensive information is collected through computer-assisted person-to-person interviews of all family members. The questionnaires not only cover a wide range of topics but also consist of intergraded modules for rural and urban interviews, gathering information on family structure and family members, migrant mobility, event history (e.g., history of marriage, education, and employment), cognitive ability, and child development. The CFPS promises to provide the academic community with the most comprehensive and highest-quality survey data on contemporary China.