My research is mainly focused on decadal to centennial climate variability and predictability, including the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), Southern ocean centennial variability and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). One of my interests is to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that control these decadal variabiltiy in the fully coupled model. I also care how these decadal variability and associated climate impacts respond to global warming/cooling scenario. The interactions between these decadal variability and anthropological forcing in the recent observation is also a topic I'd like to work on. My recent interests also include the Antarctic Bottom water characteristics and propagation in the Southern Hemisphere and air-sea interaction in the ocean front regions.